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SOCA01H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Operant Conditioning, Drug Tolerance, Albert Bandura

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Krause, Corts, Dolderman, Smith, Psychological Science, Canadian Edition,
Chapter 6: Learning
1) When one of Pavlov's dogs salivated in response to the food, the salivation was a(n)
unconditioned response, but when the dogs salivated to the sound of a metronome, the
salivation should be called a(n) conditioned response.
Correct: An unconditioned response (UR) is a reflexive, unlearned reaction to an
unconditioned stimulus. In contrast, a conditioned response (CR) is the learned response that
occurs to the conditioned stimulus. In Pavlov’s basic experiment, the food was the
unconditioned stimulus because dogs instinctually salivate to food. The dogs were conditioned
to salivate to the metronome or similar stimulus by pairing it with the food until the two
stimuli became associated.
Diff: 2
Type: FIB
Page Reference: 227-228
Skill: Conceptual
Objective: Know the key terminology involved in classical conditioning.
2) John Watson and Rosalie Rayner demonstrated that people suffering from phobias may have
been accidentally conditioned to have emotional responses to specific stimuli or situations.
Correct: Watson and Rayne famously conditioned an infant to fear a rat by pairing the rat
with a loud noise. Conditioned emotional responses like these offer a possible explanation for
phobias, which are intense, irrational fears of specific objects or situations.
Diff: 2
Type: FIB
Page Reference: 232-233
Skill: Conceptual
Objective: Know the key terminology involved in classical conditioning.
3) One reason why drug users increase their dosages over time is a classical conditioning
phenomenon known as conditioned drug tolerance, which involves physiological responses in
preparation for drug administration.
Correct: Conditioned drug tolerance develops as the body begins associating environmental
cues that accompany drug use with the drug itself. The conditioned responses involve
responses that prepare the body for something potentially dangerous. Over time, when drug
use is done in a consistent environment, more of the drug is needed to override these
preparatory responses so that the desired effect can be obtained.
Diff: 2
Type: FIB
Page Reference: 239
Skill: Factual
Objective: Know the key terminology involved in classical conditioning.
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