Study Guides (258,648)
CA (124,964)
UTSC (8,100)
Sociology (581)
SOCA01H3 (165)
Mc Kinon (28)

Brym_Ch11

12 Pages
57 Views

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA01H3
Professor
Mc Kinon

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 12 pages of the document.
Chapter 11: Sexuality & Gender
Sex versus Gender
Intersexed: babies born w/ ambiguous genitals b/c of a hormone imbalance in the
womb or some other cause
Gender I dentity and Gender Role
Sex depends on whether you were born w/ distinct male or female genitals and a genetic
program that released male or female hormones to stimulate the development of your
reproductive system
Sociologists distinguish biological sex from sociological gender
Gender: sense of being male or female & your playing of masculine and feminine
roles in ways defined as appropriate by your culture and society
oAlso comprises feelings, attitudes & behaviours associated w/ being male or
female
Gender identity: a persons identification w/, or sense of belonging to, a particular
sex—biologically, psychologically, and socially
Gender role: set of behaviours associated w/ widely shared expectations about how
males & females are supposed to act
Babies develop a full sense of gender identity at age 2 or 3
Social learning of gender begins very early in life
Heterosexuality: the preference for members of the opposite sex as sexual partners
Theories of Gender
Essentialism: views gender as part of the nature or essence of a persons biological
makeup
osee gender differences as a reflection of biological differences b/w w & m
oI.e. Functionalist theory
Social constructionism: views gender as constructed by social structure and
culture
Malak Patel1
| Chapter 11
www.notesolution.com
osee gender differences as a reflection of the different social positions occupied
by w & m
oI.e. conflict, feminist, symbolic interactionist theories
Essentialism
Freud
Believed that dfrnces in male & female anatomy account for the development of distinct
gender roles
Children around the age of 3 begin to pay attention to their genitals
Boys grown closer toward his mother, girls toward her father
Girls develop a feminine personality when she realizes she lacks a penis; forms penis
envy
Since women are never able to resolve their penis envy, they are naturally dependent
on men
Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology
All humans try to ensure that their genes are passed on to future generations
Men & women develop different strategies to achieve this goal
Women only produces small # of eggs, men has chances that his genes will be
passed on
Functionalism & Essentialism
Talcott Parsons: claim that traditional gender roles help to integrate society
oWomen traditionally specialize in raising children & managing the household
oMen traditionally work in the paid labour force
oEach generation learns to perform these complementary roles
For boys, masculinity is instrumental traits [rationality, competitiveness]
For girls, feminity is expressive traits [sensitivity to others]
In functionalist view, learning the features of masculinity & feminity integrates
society
A Critique of Essentialism from Conflict & Feminist Perspectives
Malak Patel2
| Chapter 11
www.notesolution.com
1.Essentialists ignore the historical & cultural variability of gender and sexuality
2.Essentialism tends to generalize from the average, ignoring variations within gender
groups
3.Little or no evidence directly supports the essentialists major claims
4.Essentialists explanations for gender differences ignore the role of power
Male domination is rooted less in industrial capitalism than in the patriarchal
authority relations, family structures, & patterns of socialization and culture that
exist in most societies [feminist]
From feminist & conflict viewpoints, functionalism, sociobiology, & evolutionary
psychology can be seen as ex of the exercise of male power [male domination & sexual
aggression]
Social Constructionism & Symbolic I nteractionism
Essentialism is the view that mascu & femini are inherent & universal traits of men
& women
In contrast, social constructionism is the view that apparently natural or innate
features of life, such as gender, are sustained by social processes
Symbolic interactionist focus on the way ppl attach meaning to things in their everyday
communication
oOne of the things to attach meaning to is what it means to be a man or a
woman
Gender Socialization
Barbie girls view her as the Ideal Woman
o girls want to be slim, blonde, shapely & pleasing to men
Marketers market toys based on gender
oThe Boy’s World section has action figures, sports collectibles, remote-controlled
cars, etc
oThe Girls World section has Barbie dolls, play kitchens, girls’ dressup,
jewellery, etc
Girls & boys are treated differently by parents—esp fathers
Malak Patel3
| Chapter 11
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Chapter 11: Sexuality & Gender Sex versus Gender Intersexed: babies born w ambiguous genitals bc of a hormone imbalance in the womb or some other cause Gender Identity and Gender Role Sex depends on whether you were born w distinct male or female genitals and a genetic program that released male or female hormones to stimulate the development of your reproductive system Sociologists distinguish biological sex from sociological gender Gender: sense of being male or female & your playing of masculine and feminine roles in ways defined as appropriate by your culture and society o Also comprises feelings, attitudes & behaviours associated w being male or female Gender identity: a persons identification w, or sense of belonging to, a particular sexbiologically, psychologically, and socially Gender role: set of behaviours associated w widely shared expectations about how males & females are supposed to act Babies develop a full sense of gender identity at age 2 or 3 Social learning of gender begins very early in life Heterosexuality: the preference for members of the opposite sex as sexual partners Theories of Gender Essentialism: views gender as part of the nature or essence of a persons biological makeup o see gender differences as a reflection of biological differences bw w & m o I.e. Functionalist theory Social constructionism: views gender as constructed by social structure and culture Malak Patel1 Chapter 11 www.notesolution.com o see gender differences as a reflection of the different social positions occupied by w & m o I.e. conflict, feminist, symbolic interactionist theories Essentialism Freud Believed that dfrnces in male & female anatomy account for the development of distinct gender roles Children around the age of 3 begin to pay attention to their genitals Boys grown closer toward his mother, girls toward her father Girls develop a feminine personality when she realizes she lacks a penis; forms penis envy Since women are never able to resolve their penis envy, they are naturally dependent on men Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology All humans try to ensure that their genes are passed on to future generations Men & women develop different strategies to achieve this goal Women only produces small # of eggs, men has chances that his genes will be passed on Functionalism & Essentialism Talcott Parsons: claim that traditional gender roles help to integrate society o Women traditionally specialize in raising children & managing the household o Men traditionally work in the paid labour force o Each generation learns to perform these complementary roles For boys, masculinity is instrumental traits [rationality, competitiveness] For girls, feminity is expressive traits [sensitivity to others] In functionalist view, learning the features of masculinity & feminity integrates society A Critique of Essentialism from Conflict & Feminist Perspectives Malak Patel2 Chapter 11 www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit