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Malcolm Mac Kinnon

of 3
What is it?
-social forces internal/external
-all about perception, what we see is selective
Social order & predictability
-behaviour is not random in social groups
-its patterned, predictable ppl tend to conform
-culture isnt random
-culture is the most powerful widespread social force that governs
Values, beliefs & norms
Values things everybody in cultures share
-most abstract, inclusive
-political equality system treats you equally
-freedom of conscience freedom to explore your own spirituality
Norms even more specific to groups
- things that govern everyday conduct
- more concrete than values, beliefs
-what kind of behaviour isnt allowed proscribed
-what kind of behaviour is allowed prescribed
The two faces of culture
-allows us to be free but sometimes constrains it paradox
Status & role
-allows us to live together peacefully
-can force you to do things you dont want to
-all cultures have customs, beliefs, values, mores
-status socially defined position in the social order
-common ones are kinships define ppl to the relationships they have
-kinship network structural positions are related to each other & they define
appropriate behaviour among & btwn those statuses
-most important status occupation tells your prestige, income & education in
-prestige = social class
-role a set of behavioural expectations that are socially assigned to specific statuses
-sanctions forms of disapproval to bring ppl back in line
Status & role set
-we play multiple roles b/c we are assigned multiple statuses
-role strain when you have one status
-role conflict when you hold multiple role statuses
- roles are clashed
- relatively permanent patterns of behaviour
-clusters of specialized roles
-groups, customs
-economy, education, politics, family, religion & mass media
Culture is the sum of ideas, practices and material objects that ppl create to deal w/ real-life
Cultural constraints
Our lives are increasingly governed by the twin forces of rationalization & consumerism
-rationalization is the application of the most efficient means to achieve given goals
and the unintended consequences of doing so
- the most efficient way to reach your goal
-consumerism is a lifestyle that involves defining oneself in terms of the goods one
-were surrounded by advertisement
-lifestyle that you show by the things you purchase
Two dangers
There are 2 ways in which our observations of another culture may be distorted:
-we may become too deeply involved in the other culture
-we may judge the other culture exclusively by the standards of our own culture
-customs - old norms -> traditional norms
-line up behaviour is a custom
-it is based on equality
-super norms mores (ex. Rape, murder, mutilation, incest)
-when a more is broken, it brings about horror, disgust
Interactive comfort zones: North America
Intimate zone: about 18 inches
- for ppl we want sustained, intimate physical contact
Personal zone: 18 inches 4 feet
- for friends & acquaintances
Social zone: 4 12 feet
- for strangers
Public zone: more than 12 feet
- for audiences
-feral children dont behave like humans
- theyre isolated children
-cant see, hear, respond differently to visual things, smell, touch
-generalizeable when you can apply the same concept to diff cultures
-all cultures organize morality
-subcultural norm diff customs, traditions that attach themselves to specific
-counter culture rejects mainstream norms
-ex. Organized crime
-situationality norms depend on the situation