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SOCA01H3 Study Guide - Exogamy, Total Fertility Rate, Child Support

Course Code
Sheldon Ungar

of 3
Chapter 8
Human capital: is the sum of useful skills and knowledge that an individual possesses
Social capital: refers to the networks or connections that individuals possess
Cultural capital: is the stock of learning and skills that increases the chance of securing a superior job
Low-income cutoff: is Statistic Canada’s term for the income threshold below which a family devotes a larger share
of its income to the necessities of food, shelter, and clothing than an average family would, likely resulting
in straitened circumstances
Global inequality: refers to differences in the economic ranking of countries
Cross-national variations in internal stratification: are differences among countries in their stratification systems
The Gini index: is a measure of income inequality. Its value ranges from zero (which means that every household
earns exactly the same amount of money) to one (which means that all income is earned by a single
Social stratification: refers to the way in which society is organized in layers or strata
Ascription-based stratification: one in which the allocation of rank depends on characteristics a person is born with
Achievement-based stratification: one in which the allocation of rank depends on a person’s accomplishments
Social mobility: refers to movement up or down the stratification system
Caste system: is an almost pure ascription-based stratification system in which occupations and marriage partners
are assigned on the basis of caste membership
Apartheid: was a caste system based on race that existed in South Africa from 1948 to 1992. It consigned the large
black majority to menial jobs, prevented marriage between blacks and whites, and erected separate public
facilities for members of the two races. Asians and people of mixed race enjoyed privileges b/w these two
Feudalism: was a legal arrangement in preindustrial Europe that bound peasants to the land and obliged them to
give their landlords a set part of the harvest. In exchange, landlords were required to protect peasants from
marauders and open their storehouses to feed the peasants if crops failed
Class consciousness: refers to being aware of membership in a class
Class: in Marx’s sense of the term, is determined by a person’s relationship to the means of production, In Weber’s
usage, class is determined by a person’s “market situation”
Bourgeoisie: in Marx’s usage are owners of the means of production, including factories, tools, and land. They do
not do any physical labour. Their income derives from profits
Proletariat: in Marx’s usage, is the working class. Members of the proletariat do physical labour but do not own
means of production. They are thus in a position to earn wages
Petitie bourgeoisie: in Marx’s usage, is the class of small-scale capitalists who own means of production but
employ only a few workers or none at all, forcing them to do physical work themselves
Status groups: differ from one another in terms of the prestige or social honour they enjoy and also in terms of
their style of life
Parties: in Weber’s usage, are organizations that seek to impose their will on others
The Functional theory of stratification: argues that (1) some jobs are more important than others are, (2) people
must make sacrifices to train important jobs, and (3) inequality is required to motivate people to undergo
these sacrifices
Power: is the ability to impose one’s will on others
Authority: is legitimate institutionalized power
Intragenerational mobility: is social mobility that occurs w/n a single generation
Intergenerational mobility: is social mobility that occurs b/w generations
Socioeconomic status (SES): combine income, education, and occupational prestige data in a single index of a
person’s position in the socioeconomic hierarchy
Chapter 10
Prejudice: is an attitude that judges a person on his or her group’s real or imagined characteristics
Discrimination: is unfair treatment of people b/c of their group membership
Race: is a social construct used to distinguish people in terms of one or more physical markers, usually w/
profound effects on their lives
Scapegoat: is a disadvantaged person or category of people that others blame for their own problems
Ethnic group: comprises people whose perceived cultural markers are deemed socially significant. Ethnic groups
differ from one another in terms of language, religion, customs, values, ancestors, and the like
Canada’s multiculturalism: policy emphasizes tolerance of ethnic and racial differences
Melting pot: ideology of the United States values the disappearance of ethnic and racial differences
Symbolic ethnicity: is a nostalgic allegiance to the culture of the immigrant generation, or that of the old country,
that is not usually incorporated in everyday behaviour
Racism: is the belief that a visible characteristic of a group, such as skin colour, indicates group inferiority and
justice discrimination
Segregation: involves the spatial and institutional separation or racial or ethnic groups
Assimilation: is the process by which a minority group blends into the majority population and eventually
disappears as a distinct group
Internal colonialism: involves one race or ethnic group subjugating another in the same country. It prevents
assimilation by segregating the subordinate group in terms of jobs, housing, and social contacts
Expulsion: is the forcible removal of a population from a territory claimed by another population
Genocide: is the intentional extermination of an entire population defined as a “race” or a “people”
Conquest: is the forcible capture of land and the economic and political domination of its inhabitants
Slavery: is the ownership and control of people
The theory of the split labour market: holds that where low-wage workers of one race and high-wage workers of
another race compete for the same jobs, high-wage workers are likely to resent the presence of low-wage
competitors and conflict is bound to result. Consequently, racist attitudes develop or are reinforced
Transnational communities: are communities whose boundaries extend b/w or among countries
Pluralism: is the retention of racial and ethnic culture combined w/ equal access to basic social resources
Affirmative action to employment equity: is a policy that gives preference to members of minority groups if equally
qualified people are available for a position
Chapter 15
Nuclear family: consists of a cohabiting man and woman who maintain a socially approved sexual relationship ad
have at least one child
Traditional nuclear family: is a nuclear family in which the husband works outside the home for money and the
wife works without pay in the home
Polygamy: expands the nuclear family “horizontally” by adding one or more spouses (usually women) to the
Extended family: expands the nuclear family “vertically” by adding another generation-one or more of the spouses’
parents-to the household
Marriage: is a socially approved, presumably long-term sexual and economic union b/w a man and a woman. It
involves reciprocal rights and obligations between souses and between parents and children
The divorce rate: is the number of divorces that occur in a year for every 1000 people in the population
The marriage rate: is the number of marriages that occur in a year for every 1000 people in the population
The total fertility rate: is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if she
had the same number of children as women in each age cohort in a given year
Endogamy: is marrying within your own social group
Exogamy: is marrying outside your own social group
Child support: involves money paid by the non-custodial parent for the purpose of supporting the children of a
separated marital, cohabitating, or sexual relationship
Chapter 19
Life Expectancy: is the average age at death of the members of a population
Health: according to the WHO, is “the ability of an individual to achieve his or her potential and to respond
positively to the challenges of the environment”
Environmental racism: is the tendency to heap environmental dangers on the disadvantaged
The public health system: comprises government-run programs that ensure access to clean drinking water, basic
sewage and sanitation services, and inoculation against infectious diseases
The health care system: is composed of a nation’s clinics, hospitals, and other facilities for ensuring health and
treating illness
Infant mortality: is the number of deaths before the age of one for every 1000 live births in a population in one
Morbidity: refers to acute and chronic illness
In countries w/ socialized medicine, the government: (1) directly controls the financing and organization of health
services, (2) directly pays providers, (3) guarantees equal access to health care, and (4) allows some private
care for individuals who are willing to pay for their medical expenses
The medicalization of deviance: is the tendency for medical definitions of deviant behaviour to become more
prevalent over time
Playing the sick role: according to Talcott Parsons, involves the non-deliberate suspension of routine
responsibilities, wanting to be well, seeking competent help, and cooperating w/ health care practitioners
at all times
Placebo effect: is the positive influence on healing of a strong belief in the effectiveness of a cure
Holistic medicine: emphasizes disease prevention. Holistic practitioners treat disease by taking into account the
relationship b/w mind and body and b/w the individual and his or her social and physical environment