Socialization Lec.docx

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Malcolm Mac Kinnon

Socialization  How culture is transmitted to infants and throughout life  You’re not born with it  Can look at it as social programming: put software into a computer to give it instructions on how to operate  Social software that gives instructions to a human computer  Easier to program computers than it is people  We run into several different programmers (humans) that tell us different things  People tell you to listen to their messages, but these messages vary and conflict with each other  Self-socialization- people learn their culture using their internet  Have to socialize to become humans via studies done on human isolation  Infant comes into world as a tabula rasa(blank slate)  If you’re isolated, you can’t become socialized  Communication is not natural, it must be learned  Brain opens up for language acquisitions at ages 2 to 5  Once you pass the phase when language can be learned, it’s a lot more difficult to learn language  Children are socialized by learning how to play games  Isolation excludes possibility of learning games and you show no interest in that later in life  Elderly people are socialized  Self is the socialized part of you- comes from outside (culture) o Assimilated on the inside (culture is internalized through socialization) o Taken for granted part of the self o Socialization allows us to become self – aware Coolie introduced looking glass o Interact with one another through gestures and language o We develop self awareness when we understand how others think of us = empathy o Sympathy required empathy, but empathy is broader o The person you’re interacting with is substituted with a mirror and you’re looking at yourself? Mead’s theory of the self Symbolic interactionist o Divided into I – subjective and impulsive o Freedom, novelty, creativity o Infants have too much of this ^ so they have to become civilized o The “me” is the socialized you – the norms, statuses, roles, beliefs and values you believe in o IndividualselfI and Me (there’s an internal conversation going on between the Me and the I) o Reflect on the I and Me…internal conversation is continuous, did the me live up to the expectations o Ex. Dating, parents want to see your partner so partner has to try and answer questions the right way because religion and politics are controversial – keep it to small talk, but keep balance because you don’t want to seem boring o Later you reflect and wonder if you’ve answered things correctly this is the conflict between the I and the Me Patterns of socialization o Can look at this across cultures o Degree of responsibility – accountable for your own actions and behavior(we live in an individualistic society) o Some cultures – family is seen as responsible for behavior of individual o When students get put on probation, utsc doesn’t put blame on family, responsibility is yours and yours alone o Responsibility is a pattern of socialization, can differ from one culture from another Patterns inside of cultures – language, values, social class, stratification (everyone is exposed to) o Working class parents don’t encourage creativity, children are expected to follow rules because creativity is seen as disruptive o Ethnicity is another class within culture (own norms, etc.) o Extended family – grandparents, aunts, uncles tend to live in same area or under the same roof so children are socialized by all of these people o Nuclear family -socialization is mediated by immediate parents and maybe siblings o Eldest child had no childhood in families with numerous children because, eldest has to stay at home and take care of the siblings Gender of siblings o Boys that have brothers are more patriarchal and macho o Boys that grow up with sisters are more female friendly (sensitivity) o Boys receive boy socialization and girls receive girl socialization Nature: biological aspects vs. nurture: socialization Nature – all infants must eat, sleep Nurture – how we eat, what we eat, when we eat is all shaped by culture, where we sleep is determined by nurture, toilet training, hygiene Individualistic cultures – taught to be independent, child sleeps in own room at a certain age Collective cultures – kids sleep in same room as parents for a long time o Nature always interacts with nurture Aspects of Socialization o Rene spitz Study compared children in orphanages o Not good places for children to be raised in (prison nursing home) o Not much human contact, human contact is necessary for socialization o We depend on each other, interact, interrelate and communicate with each other more than other species because we have language therefore we need interaction o People moved out to some island with no one else there, forgot their own language after years, forgot norms (what’s appropriate behavior-when it comes to eating) o Children are scarce today because many people choose not to have children o Being alone causes us to lose socialization we once had, unethical to do experiments on this o People don’t need attention when raised in isolation – has biological consequences  Meeting people is good for your health  Have higher death rates, slower…impaired sexual functioning upon maturity (we learn via playing games) Primary socialization o Begins at birth, parents socialize infant by passing on cultural knowledge they possess o Older siblings o Adequate socialization is critical for later life o If children see disagreement is solved by violence, they learn that o Soak up behavior that goes on around them and will take that to adulthood Children should be praised and complimented, which is contrasted with ridiculing people Secondary socialization Ex. U.S – school system tries to insulate children from failure (everyone passes) o No one wins games, it’s always a tie in case their self esteem is undermined o Goes too far because we learn good things from our mistakes o International comparisons of literacy and numeracy rate – America ranks 25 because of self esteem movement Aristotle’s golden deed o Must praise children and criticize when making mistakes Traditional societies/ pre-industrial o Children seen as small adults o Expected to conform like adults and live up to expectations o Children don’t have biological capacity to operate like adults o Brain develops with age and at certain phases 6-7, brain is incapable of learning certain things (refer to piaget) o Children are expected to work, life was short – got married at 16 o Europe and north America followed this till 17 century o Eventually learned young people don’t have ability to deal with things like adults allowing the term adolescence to emerge o Takes long to be socialized into a human community, so you have fully mature individuals who are still in the process of becoming socialized Secondary socialization o Others influence person besides parents and siblings o School system o Kiddy culture passes on – ring around the rosy means plague killed people (catholic) o Part time job – Mcdz o Becoming a parent o Grandparent – growing old o Full time job – occupational socialization o Professions are placed higher than occupations because they regulate themselves by running their own shows  Grad schools teach you how to behave according to the profession  Ex. Taught how to talk like a pharmacist and behave like one (expectations)  Can always retain the “I” pretend like you believe those values People make assumptions that you are senile (mind decays with age) because you look old or can’t
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