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Malcolm Mac Kinnon

28) What it means to be gendered me Life on the boundaries of a dichotomous gender system Individuals learn gender roles and gender stereotyping through socialization Gender role socialization reinforces gender inequality o Men and women are expected to fulfill different and opposite family and occupational roles o What about those who have more ambiguous genders? betsy local uses her biography to examine social construction of gender and implications of gender bending for gender identity and social interaction Betsy Lucal is a woman in a mans body o Faces consequences of implications of two and only two when it comes to sex and gender categories in society o Uses women public restrroms o sir directed at her o Enacts a variety of practices either to minimize the need for others to know her gender or to deal with their misattributions The social construction of Gender Sex and gender are distinct o Gender is something we do o Agnes male who wished to pass as a woman, could not take her gender for granted and wa sin danger of failing to pass as a woman Gendering is a process Apply gender labels because: o An individuals gender cues out interactions with her or him o Successful social relations require all participants to present, monitor and interpret gender displays o Have no social place for a person who is neither woman nor man We do not know how to interact with such a person o Gender is omnirelevant no way of addressing the person as sir or maam o Important for women to know what the gender of the other person is so they can be weary if person is a man or relax if person is a woman Each time we encounter a new person, we make a gender attribution Gendered traits are called attributed for a reason: people attribute traits to others. No one possseses them. Traits are the product of evaluation o Learn how to read peoples genders by learning which traits culturally signify each gender enabling us to classify individuals into 2 categories (men or women) o Because we all use the same traits and rules in presenting genders, it makes it easier for us to attribute genders to them o We operate under assumptions that there are rules and attributes specific to only male or specific to only female and believe we are total opposites of each other this is not true as there are exceptions (no attributes are true to 1 gender only)! Feminity seen as being less desirable than masculinity, their gender blending was a product of their shame about being a woman o Affects our perceptions of other people and individuals senses of their own gendered selves We use social skills to attribute genders to others, but also use social skills to present our own genders to them Goffmans Gender Display o Gender is a performance a stylized repetition of acts o Culturally established sets of behaviors, appearances, mannerisms and other cues we associate with a particular gender o Our bodies and their adornments provide us with texts for reading a persons gender o Without use of gendered clothing, hairstyles, jewellery and cosmetics men and women would look more alike Feminity: longish hair, wear makeup, skirts, jewelery, high heels, walk with a wiggle, little or no observable body hair and being soft, rounded and sweet smelling western conceptualization of gender Women being mistaken for men: mannerisms, language, facial expressions, dress and a lack of feminine adornment Person who fails to establish a gendered appearance that corresponds to persons gender, fces challenges to her or his identity and status o Gender nonconformist must find a way to construct an identity in a society that denies her or him any legitimacy o Deal with other peoples challenges to identity and status how to respond and what such reactions to appearance mean We do gender whether we intend to or not o Female basketball player keeps her hair long, despite her actions she is still a woman o Man takes up more space when sitting than a woman does Our society is clearly organized around gender, no way not to do gender A person who does not do gender appropriately is placed not into a third category, but into one with her or his gender display seems most closely to fit Even if we dont want to do gender, other people will do it for us no escape from doing one of two genders Risks of not being taken for the gender intended are minimal for nontransexuals is the belief o Overlooks experience of gender blenders and gender benders People who do not adhere to the rules risk gender misattribution and any interactional consequences that result from misidentification Have to be 1 gender or the other, canno be gender less or both Bending gender rules and passing between genders does not erode but rather preserves gender boundaries When gender blending females refused to mark themselves by publicly displaying sufficient femininity to be recognized as women, there were not challenging patriarchal gender assumptions My self as Data Appearance and gender/sex are not congruent in eyes of people Personal troubles gender produces in contect of a two and only two gender system Lucal dresses manly because she is 6 ft tall and women sizes do not fit her Consequences of Lucals appearance Issues of identity and issues of interaction Called sir and then maam by the same people Using credit cards challengeo Asked for identity o Proof of signature matching o Asked if son of cardholder Stares in public washrooms and reminded that this is the ladies room Men nod at her as if she is a man Treated more respectfully at the mechanic shed Called onto defend herself from physical aggression from other men who felt challenged by her (man) Man yelled at her for parking on a free street, did not know she was a woman professor Hit on by women when in mall with brother Seen as huband and father when with a female friend who has a child Dealing with it Grew hair long down to shoulders Grew finger nails and wore nail polish More or less referred to as woman, but sometimes still referred to as man Gender is irrelevant in converstions with others, but annoyed to be misidentified When appearance is couple with name, has to do something to ensure identity doesnt get questioned Avoid restrooms o If not possible, does not wear hat, make breasts more obvious by rearranging clothing (using secondary characteristics to make sex obvious rather than use of gender to make sex obvious) o Never make eye contact and get in and out ASAP o Goes in with a woman friend who looks like she belongs there to legitimize her own presence o Repl
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