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Published on 17 Apr 2011
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Educationchapter 17
Education system has replaced organized religion as main purveyor of formal
Education around 100 years old
Education system also is 2nd in importance to family
300 years agomost we illiterate
100 years agomajority never attended school
1950only 10% of worlds countries had system if compulsory mass education
Today: more than half of the developing countries are illiterate, while in Canada,
education is a way of life
Watson + crick
oDecoded DNA
oDouble helixled to creation of genetic engineering countries
2. theoretical approaches to education
1. Functionalism
oAchievementsoutcomes assigned in proportion to individual success in
satisfying job-relevant tests of capacity) instead of Ascription outcomes
assigned to circumstances traits
2. Conflict perspective
oClaim the following
Economic barriers: prevent people from going on to post secondary
Schooling reproduces difference in cultural capital and thus preserves
class difference (promotes inequality)
Many jobs require academic credentials that are questionable as job
skills are effective at
Education achievement
oIs learning or skill than an individual acquires and at least in principle it is
what grades reflect
Education attainment
oIs number of years of schooling completed, or for higher levels, certificates
and degrees earned
In tribal societies: info knowledge is transmitted through family and tribe
Knowledge societyAs they become more scientific and technological (more
complex) the division of labour increases and school and formal education becomes
more important. The family cant provide you with the information you need to
operate in this type of society
Primary school stat with: the 3 Rs
Colleges specializes in practical direction university specializes in academic
The formal curriculum (schooling)
The informal (hidden) curriculum
oTeaches obedience to authority and conformity to cultural norms and
influences content of classroom lessons
oStaying in school requires accepting terms of the hidden curriculum
Example: o f hidden curriculumrespect, discipline, sociability,
punctuality, motivation long-range planning, hard work
University teaches you:
Deferred gratification
oDefer gratification to some point in the future (discipline)
Functionalism continued
oSchool teaches you
Critical thinking
Education and social integration
Gellner (1983)slide 11
oProposed mass education was basis for modern
oNationalismsentiments emphasizing view that humanity is divided into
limited number of populations defined by common culture, territory, and
continuity with kin group
Partaking of common culture allows for
Imagines communitiessentiments of solidarity and identification with those who
share cultural capacities
Sort and steer students to different class positions as adults
Homogenize future citizens by indoctrinating into common culture
People have to learn
oCertain job related skills
oHow to be good citizens
oTolerance and acceptance of difference
Social standingeducation gives us this
Bourdieuslide 12
Education helps people find what they are good at
Education is the most significant way of achieving upward mobility
Unintended functional consequences of education
oChild care: provides for childcare when both parents work, single families etc
Provide controlled environment for teenagers (they can be watched and mentored
and monitored)
You develop social relationships and networks (life long friendships, maybe fall in
love etc)
Youth culture (creates this)
Create means of maintaining wage levels by keeping post secondary students
temporarily out of job market
Occasionally create school of dissent that opposes authorities
2. Conflict perspective cond.
Economic barriers to higher education
oAlmost no postsecondary education is able to admit only qualified and to
supply all who qualify with funding to meet all expenses
oIn most cases, higher education in Canada requires students and their
families to shoulder significant financial burdens, including rising tuition
fees, residence fees etc.
oSocial class origin strongly affects how much education people attain
Collinsslide 17
Credentialism and professionalism
He believes social class, race etc. is significant with education
We have to be wairy of this in many instances, this is not the case
Education continued
Conflict theorists say that:
oEducation promotes inequality
oClass influences education attainment
Upper and middle class
o75% have computers
Working class
o25% or lower have computers
Some conflict theorists say that education discriminates against females (needs to be
Book by Christina Hoffsummers, the war against boys
oIs a hostile against boys
oEducation sytem
Book by Richard Whitmirewhy boys fail2110
oWorld becoming increasingly verbal and females maybe better at the verbal
Social control in classroom
oExample Ritalin
In 1956, 20% of university degrees were to women
In 1986, 58% were to women
Timothy baits
oTried to measure male versus female intelligence
Top 2% were more men than women, bottom 2% were more than
Conflict theorists also say that there is
oSocial control by way of hidden curriculum