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SOCA02H3 Study Guide - Bilingual Education, Johannes Gutenberg, Charter Of The French Language

Course Code
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

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September 1969: A march organized by the French unilinguist Ligue pour
lintegration scolaire paraded through an Italian neighbourhood
Riot broke out
Resolution: Bill 101:
Makes French the language of public administration
Imposes French language tests for admission to professions
Requires most businesses with more than 50 employees to operate in French
Requires collective agreements to be drafted in French
Children of immigrants required to receive primary and secondary schooling
in French
The bill was passed because the Francophones in Quebec felt that the option of
bilingual education in St. Leonard was resulting in Anglicization of the city; over
90% of children with neither an English nor a French background (allophones”)
were enrolling in the bilingual track; 85% of which continued to English secondary
In 1976, Parti Quebecois won their first election and Bill 101 was passed
Schools teach students a common culture that forms social framework for later life;
they shape work, politics, and much more
Which children have access to which schools sorts children into adult jobs and social
Schools must accomplish two main tasks:
1)Homogeneity: achieved through enforcing common standards, such as language
2)Sorting: Favours students who develop greatest facility in common culture while
confining those of lesser skills to subordinate work roles and lower ranks in the
class structure

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Homogenizing and sorting are organized at primary, secondary, and postsecondary
Mass schooling = recent advancement due to industrialization and to maintain
productivity of economy
Citizens of richer countries are more likely to receive an education; more education =
better treatment in labour market = lower rates of underemployment and higher
Thus, education turns students into citizens by giving them a common outlook, but
on the other hand regenerates the class structure and global inequality
Education has displaced religion as main purveyor of formal knowledge
Education system = second most important agent of socialization (after family)
300 years ago: small minority of people learned to read and write; 100 years ago:
majority of people never attended school; 1950: only 10% of worlds countries
consisted of compulsory mass education; today: more than 50% of people in
developing nations are illiterate (e.g. In India, 400 million people are illiterate and
35 million children do not attend school)
Proportion of people between ages of 25-64 with a college/university degree in
Canada is 1.05 million (48%) (First in the world, followed by Japan, and then U.S.)
Mass education is a recent concept, developed in 1900 by Canada and the United
States; before that, vast majority of children learned to work as adults by observing
and helping their adults in the agricultural economy
Establishing mass schooling imposed uniformity and standardization it leads to
Laws were established in Canada to compel students to attend school to a certain

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In Canada, more than 5% of families send their children to private schools and 1 in
200 children is home-schooled; 94% of families send their children to public schools
(year: 2001)
Level of education that people receive has been rising continuously in Canada (e.g. in
1951, 1 in 50 Canadians (ages 25-64) had a university degree; today, 1 in 4
Canadians (ages 25-64) has a university degree
Reason for higher level of education is apparent: education is the most visible option
for improving employment opportunities
Barriers for post-secondary education: financial, motivational, and academic
EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT: The learning or skill that an individual
acquires, and in principle, it is what grades reflect
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT: Number of years of schooling completed or for
higher levels, degrees and certificates that are earned
Whereas selection (into post-secondary institutions) depends on individual
educational achievements, educational attainment involves individual success, as
well as non-academic factors such as family background
Higher educational attainment = more employment and more earnings
Lower rates of unemployment are associated with more education
More education and better earning also goes together; for instance, in the highest
earning category (100,000 and more), 58% of people completed university
Advantages of education:
Provides a basis for collective and individual wealth
Motivates widespread loyalty to culture and society
Disadvantages of education:
Reproduce class inequality
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