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Malcolm Mac Kinnon

CHAPTER 17: EDUCATION THE RIOT IN ST. LEONARD September 1969: A march organized by the French unilinguist Ligue pour lintegration scolaire paraded through an Italian neighbourhood Riot broke out Resolution: Bill 101: Makes French the language of public administration Imposes French language tests for admission to professions Requires most businesses with more than 50 employees to operate in French Requires collective agreements to be drafted in French Children of immigrants required to receive primary and secondary schooling in French The bill was passed because the Francophones in Quebec felt that the option of bilingual education in St. Leonard was resulting in Anglicization of the city; over 90% of children with neither an English nor a French background (allophones) were enrolling in the bilingual track; 85% of which continued to English secondary schools In 1976, Parti Quebecois won their first election and Bill 101 was passed Schools teach students a common culture that forms social framework for later life; they shape work, politics, and much more Which children have access to which schools sorts children into adult jobs and social classes Schools must accomplish two main tasks: 1) Homogeneity: achieved through enforcing common standards, such as language 2) Sorting: Favours students who develop greatest facility in common culture while confining those of lesser skills to subordinate work roles and lower ranks in the class structure Homogenizing and sorting are organized at primary, secondary, and postsecondary levels Mass schooling = recent advancement due to industrialization and to maintain productivity of economy Citizens of richer countries are more likely to receive an education; more education = better treatment in labour market = lower rates of underemployment and higher earnings Thus, education turns students into citizens by giving them a common outlook, but on the other hand regenerates the class structure and global inequality MASS EDUCATION: AN OVERVIEW Education has displaced religion as main purveyor of formal knowledge Education system = second most important agent of socialization (after family) 300 years ago: small minority of people learned to read and write; 100 years ago: majority of people never attended school; 1950: only 10% of worlds countries consisted of compulsory mass education; today: more than 50% of people in developing nations are illiterate (e.g. In India, 400 million people are illiterate and 35 million children do not attend school) Proportion of people between ages of 25-64 with a college/university degree in Canada is 1.05 million (48%) (First in the world, followed by Japan, and then U.S.) Mass education is a recent concept, developed in 1900 by Canada and the United States; before that, vast majority of children learned to work as adults by observing and helping their adults in the agricultural economy UNIFORM SOCIALIZATION Establishing mass schooling imposed uniformity and standardization it leads to homogenization Laws were established in Canada to compel students to attend school to a certain age In Canada, more than 5% of families send their children to private schools and 1 in 200 children is home-schooled; 94% of families send their children to public schools (year: 2001) RISING LEVELS OF EDUCATION Level of education that people receive has been rising continuously in Canada (e.g. in 1951, 1 in 50 Canadians (ages 25-64) had a university degree; today, 1 in 4 Canadians (ages 25-64) has a university degree Reason for higher level of education is apparent: education is the most visible option for improving employment opportunities Barriers for post-secondary education: financial, motivational, and academic performance EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT: The learning or skill that an individual acquires, and in principle, it is what grades reflect EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT: Number of years of schooling completed or for higher levels, degrees and certificates that are earned Whereas selection (into post-secondary institutions) depends on individual educational achievements, educational attainment involves individual success, as well as non-academic factors such as family background INDIVIDUAL ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Higher educational attainment = more employment and more earnings Lower rates of unemployment are associated with more education More education and better earning also goes together; for instance, in the highest earning category (100,000 and more), 58% of people completed university Advantages of education: Provides a basis for collective and individual wealth Motivates widespread loyalty to culture and society Disadvantages of education: Reproduce class inequality RISE OF MASS SCHOOLING Sociologists identify four factors that account for the spread of mass schooling: 1) Development of the printing press that led to inexpensive book production Introduced by Johann Gutenberg in 1436 in Europe Led to a dramatic decline in prices for books also, books were published in languages other than Latin which made literacy common first in cities, and then in rural areas 2) The Protestant Reformation Introduced by Martin Luther, a German monk in the early 16 century in Europe Gave rise to Protestantism, in opposition to the Catholic Church; in Catholic churches, the priests were responsible for conveying the doctrines of the bible to the believers; however, the Protestants believed that they should have more direct contact with the words of God and should be allowed to read the Bible for themselves 3) The spread of democracy Rise of political democracy led to free education for all children Led to local tax-based funding of public school systems Earliest such systems were in Upper Canada and the northern U.S. in 1870; 1900, were the first countries in the world to reach enrolment rates of 90% for children 5-14 years of age 4) Industrialism Most important reason for rise of mass schooling Schooling was recognized as an absolute necessity for industrialization 1780s: Industrial Revolution began in England; soon followed by Germany and U.S. As industrialization began, literacy and numeracy extended (although historians those days assessed literacy by counting the number of people
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