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Study Guide

SOCA02H3- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 43 pages long!)


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA02H3
Professor
Andrew Mc Kinnon
Study Guide
Final

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UTSC
SOCA02H3
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Gender Inequality
Gender Inequality
Refers to differences between women and men in the distribution of power, income and
prestige.
Patriarchy
Male domination and female subordination evident in all social relations. (ex. political,
economic, familial and informal everyday behaviour.)
Men are the leaders of society and hold more power than women, therefore, society has played
uh oe to e iteests tha oe’s iteests
Leaning in by Sheryl Sandberg
She was the chief editor of Facebook and was the first women to be elected into the world of
directors for Facebook.
She is known as the first women to break it into social media and business, a male dominated
field.
She wants women to join her in reaching for higher positions in their work fields. Therefore she
ote the ook alled lea i, eggig the uestio, h ae thee still a sall peetage of
women in higher jobs.
When girls are ambitious and put themselves in leadership roles, they are unfortunately seen as
oss
She is talking about encouraging women to not just sit on the sidelines
She talks about how the socialization of children needs to change so that it is easier for women
to at to lea i to oe
When men talk they are noticed more and women are less noticed.
Historical Perspective
Gender inequality older than class inequality
- Ex. most hunting and gathering societies are from a male perspective
- Selective survival of artifacts
- The men did most of the hunting and physical tasks
Vs et hutig
- Ex. women were more equal than usually assumed
Class or Economic Stratification
Women started to enter the workforce only during the war because many of the men were off
fighting in the military.
After the war, women were fighting to keep their jobs and the first wave of feminism emerged
Up to the 96s women required men to sign many of their documents as many women did not
have many rights … little idepedee.
Occupational Gender Segregation
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Pink collar
- Women typically did jobs that involved caregiving, or household type management
functions
- Occupational sex segregation decreased after the 1960s.
Percentage of Men and Women in paid Labour Force, CA 1946-2007
There is a 70 cents to a dollar wage gap in which for every dollar made by males, on average,
women made 70 cents
Females who did the best were the ones who were not married
Female Labour Force Participation
Female labour force participation rose because of:
- Increase demand for service workers
- A decrease in the average number of children per family
- Increased economic demand for dual-income families
- Increased education of women
- Increased financial pressures of families
o Necessary for middle class standing
Ratio of Female to Male Earnings
Women who earn the best are those who have never married because their employers are not
oied aout the oe’s dediatio to thei hilde istead of the okplae as ost of the
child bearing and child care falls on the role of the mother
Some Major Changes
Women make up almost 60% of university grads
Women with BAs degree now are earning slightly more than men with Bas
But few women are at the top of their businesses because of multiple glass ceilings
The Glass ceiling: oe’s estited et ito top positios, ee hee ost of the okes
are women. The concept of the glass ceiling assumes that women have motivation, ambition
and capacity for positions of power, prestige, but hidden barriers keep them from reaching the
top. They can see the way their goal, but they bump their heads on a ceiling that is both invisible
and impenetrable. (ex. the motherhood gap, hidden barrier, glass escalator)
According for Gender Differences
Sex
- Biological and physical difference
- Chromosomes
Gender (sociological concept)
- Social and cultural conceptions of male and female
- There are different cross cultural differences in gender roles
Eleanor Maccoby and Carol Jacklin
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