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Crimes - Third Lecture After MidTerm.docx

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Sheldon Ungar

Sociology: Crimes Against People Lecture 3 (After Mid-Term) pg. 1 Crimes against women • Until recently, many types of crimes against women – especially marital rape and so-called date rape – were legally ignored in Canada • Prior to 1970’s, government did not even collect data on sexual harassment or physical violence against women • Was also very little discussion about topic by judges, lawyers, and social scientists • Have since been changes in legislation (e.g., criminalizing all non-consensual sexual acts) and prosecution or various forms of violence against women • Case: Shoplifter ‘unlawfully detained’within store owners store… (In text) • When one is the object of assault (generally) - one is allowed, by law, to defend themselves however within certain limitations. (More guns = more crime and violence, not necessarily true) • Know different forms of assault from – sexual assault (rape, molestation) to murder (1 , 2 , manslaughter) etc… Biological Theories • Dealing with crime is a complicated issue, relating to the interaction between theories based on nature vs. nurture • Nature: Criminality is inherited. Cesare Lombrozo (?), the first criminologist and founded the nature theory, none of his ideas accepted today? In 1911 Lombrozo wrote the book on crime “crime its causes and remedies” – lombrozo convinced it was inborn (the bad seed).Atavistic type. This comes from Darwins evolutionary theory. Lombrozo – what distinguishes humans from animals is that humans have a highly evolved moralistic sense. Says some criminals are not fully evolved, some people (atavistic types) have not developed human morality and in turn are criminals. Degeneracy – a criminal is degenerate or morally insane: both terms refer to nature • What proof did Lambrozo offer: he said his biological theory must be true because it is impossible to identify a criminal physically. Criminals possess stigmata – red hair, receding hairlines, and shifty eyes. • His proof lacks empirical support. He should have, instead, compared a criminal and non- criminal sample for stigmata. • Charles Goring, challenged the hypothesis, this study disposed of Lambrozos stigmata Sociology: Crimes Against People Lecture 3 (After Mid-Term) pg. 2 • William Sheldon book “Varieties of Human Physic” (1940s’), also a nature theorist. Endomorphy – someone who is round and stout, non-athletic. Ectomorph: tall, thin, non-athletic, Mesomoph – muscular, agile, athletic (The mesomorph is the one that is in criminals) • Sheldon and Elenor Egluex “Physic and delinquency” (1956’s) - replicated Sheldon’s work and matched delinquents with non-delinquents, results confirmed Sheldon. Two possible interpretations: Biological – criminal behavior comes from inside people (genetic makeup), Sociological – social forces interact with body type and thus produce delinquency • Creation of ‘self-fulfilling prophecy’ • Symbolic Interactionists (SI): people are assigned roles, scripts are assigned to people based on the way society defines them Sociological Theories • Motivational Theories: identify social factors that drive people to commit deviance and crime • Constraint theories: … • Sutherlands Learning theory – differential association theory: people lear
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