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Study Guide for Midterm: Textbook Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

SOCA02 Textbook Notes Chapter 2: How Sociologists Do Research Values -> Theories -> Previous Research -> Methods -#0,OL9 Conducting Research The Research Cycle: 1) Formulate Question 2) Review existing Literature 3) Select Method 4) Collect Data 5) Analyze Data 6) Report Results Ethical Consideration 434K,7270850.98:-M0.987LJK98 - Right to safety - Right to privacy - Right to confidentiality - Right to informed consent The Main Methods of Sociology: participant observation, experiments, survey, past documents Field research research based on the observation of people in their natural settings - Detached observation classifying and counting the behaviour of interest according to a predetermined scheme o Hawthorne effect presence of researcher changes results o Meaning may be vague to the researcher - Ethonographic research learning the entire way of life of a people (opposite of detach) o Going Native giving up their research role and becoming members of the group they are studying Participant Observation attempt to observe a social milieu objectively and take part in the activities of the people they are studying - Professional Fence person who buys and sells stolen goods Lesson in Method - Exploratory research researchers first have only a vague sense of what they are looking for and perhaps no sense at all of what they will discover in the course of their study - Hypothesis unverified but testable statements about the phenomena - Grounded theory an explanation of a phenomenon based not on mere speculation but on controlled scrutiny of subjects Methodological Problems Measurement: - Variables concepts that have more than one value - Operationalization deciding which observations to link to which variables Reliability would another researcher interpret or measure things in the same way Validity is it measuring what it is suppose to measure Generalizability can it be applied to general population
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