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Sociology Midterm Notes All.docx

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Malcolm Mac Kinnon

Twinkle Arora Sociology CH2How Sociologists Do Research Filtering occurs in the following stages Reality ValuesTheories Previous ResearchMethodsValuesHelp us decide which problems are worth investigating these values may reflect our outlook of our class gender religion historical period etc Our values allow us to formulate and adopt favoured theories for interpreting and explaining those problems Previous research Used to consult to find out what we already know about a subjectMethods Used to gather data and mould our perceptionsNote our bias easily influence our perceptions and observationsUnscientific thinkingTraditionchicken soup helpsget rid of a coldAuthorityweak magnets can be used to many illnesses this statement is often represented in newspapers We often think its true as we havereceived it from an authoritative source Casual observationthe car that hit the cyclist was dark brownOvergeneralizationif you work hard you can get aheadif you know a few people who started poor worked hard and became rich you may think any poor person can become richSelective observationsometimes unconsciously ignore evidence that challenges our beliefsQualificationLogical reasoningin everyday life we may expect the recurrence of events wo reasonable cause ignoring the fact that rare sequences of events occur by chanceEgo defenceI just cant be wrong Premature closure of inquiryway of thinking involves deciding that all the relevant evidence has been gathered on a particular subjectMystificationthere must be supernatural forces at work hereno rational explanation for phenomenaTwinkle AroraThe research cycle 1 Formulate question2 Review existing literatureresearchers must elaborate their research questions in light of what other sociologists have already debated and discovered3 Select methodwhen choosing a method one must keep in mind the strengths and weaknesses therefore each method is best suited to studying a differ problem 4 Collect datacollecting data by observing interviewing and reading about the subject 5 Analyze data6 Report results publish your results allows other researchers to criticize the research errors can be corrected and better sophisticated questions can be formulatedEthical consideration Respect their subjects rights Researchers may do no harm to their subjectsright to safety People must have the right to decide whether their attitudes and behaviours may be revealed to the publicright to privacy Researchers cannot use data in a way that allows them to be traced to a particular subjectright to confidentiality Subjects must be told how the information supply will be used and must be allowed to know about any personal risk involvedright to informed consent Field researchis research based on the observation of people in their natural settings Strategies used in field researchDetached observationinvolves classifying and counting the behaviour of interest according to a predetermined scheme Hawthorne effecthappens in direct observation the presence of the researcher may itself affect the behaviour of the people being observedEthnographicresearcher spends months or even years living with people to learn their language values mesmerisms culture and developing an intimate understanding of their behavioursParticipant observationinvolves carefully observing peoples face to face interactions and participating in their lives over a long period of time thus achieving a deep and sympathetic understanding of what motives them to act in the way they do Carl B Klockars analysisrefer to pg40 about selling stolen items
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