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SOCA02H3 (104)


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Sheldon Ungar

CHAPTER 17 EDUCATION THE RIOT IN ST LEONARDSeptember 1969 A march organized by the French unilinguist Ligue pour lintegration scolaire paraded through an Italian neighbourhoodRiot broke outResolution Bill 101Makes French the language of public administrationImposes French language tests for admission to professionsRequires most businesses with more than 50 employees to operate in FrenchRequires collective agreements to be drafted in FrenchChildren of immigrants required to receive primary and secondary schooling in FrenchThe bill was passed because the Francophones in Quebec felt that the option of bilingual education in St Leonard was resulting in Anglicization of the city over 90 of children with neither an English nor a French background allophones were enrolling in the bilingual track 85 of which continued to English secondary schools In 1976 Parti Quebecois won their first election and Bill 101 was passedSchools teach students a common culture that forms social framework for later life they shape work politics and much moreWhich children have access to which schools sorts children into adult jobs and social classesSchools must accomplish two main tasks 1 Homogeneity achieved through enforcing common standards such as language 2 Sorting Favours students who develop greatest facility in common culture while confining those of lesser skills to subordinate work roles and lower ranks in the class structureHomogenizing and sorting are organized at primary secondary and postsecondary levelsMass schoolingrecent advancement due to industrialization and to maintain productivity of economyCitizens of richer countries are more likely to receive an education more educationbetter treatment in labour marketlower rates of underemployment and higher earningsThus education turns students into citizens by giving them a common outlook but on the other hand regenerates the class structure and global inequalityMASS EDUCATION AN OVERVIEWEducation has displaced religion as main purveyor of formal knowledgeEducation systemsecond most important agent of socialization after family300 years ago small minority of people learned to read and write 100 years ago majority of people never attended school 1950 only 10 of worlds countries consisted of compulsory mass education today more than 50 of people in developing nations are illiterate eg In India 400 million people are illiterate and 35 million children do not attend schoolProportion of people between ages of 2564 with a collegeuniversity degree in Canada is 105 million 48 First in the world followed by Japan and then USMass education is a recent concept developed in 1900 by Canada and the United States before that vast majority of children learned to work as adults by observing and helping their adults in the agricultural economy UNIFORM SOCIALIZATIONEstablishing mass schooling imposed uniformity and standardizationit leads to homogenizationLaws were established in Canada to compel students to attend school to a certain ageIn Canada more than 5 of families send their children to private schools and 1 in 200 children is homeschooled 94 of families send their children to public schools year 2001 RISING LEVELS OF EDUCATIONLevel of education that people receive has been rising continuously in Canada eg in 1951 1 in 50 Canadians ages 2564 had a university degree today 1 in 4 Canadians ages 2564 has a university degreeReason for higher level of education is apparent education is the most visible option for improving employment opportunitiesBarriers for postsecondary education financial motivational and academic performanceEDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT The learning or skill that an individual acquires and in principle it is what grades reflectEDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Number of years of schooling completed or for higher levels degrees and certificates that are earnedWhereas selection into postsecondary institutions depends on individual educational achievements educational attainment involves individual success as well as nonacademic factors such as family background INDIVIDUAL ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGESHigher educational attainmentmore employment and more earningsLower rates of unemployment are associated with more educationMore education and better earning also goes together for instance in the highest earning category 100000 and more 58 of people completed universityAdvantages of educationProvides a basis for collective and individual wealthMotivates widespread loyalty to culture and societyDisadvantages of educationReproduce class inequality
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