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Malcolm Mac Kinnon

CHAPTER 50: CIVILIZE THEM WITH A STICK Mary Crow Dog Nations policies toward Native Americans: separation of Indian children from their families and cultures To civilize these children into the dominant society Started in 1879, peaked around 1879-1930; Native American children were forced to attend boarding schools, day schools, and schools in converted army posts; these institutions used tactics similar to those used by military to resocialize these children Crow Dog describes these children as victims of Nazi concentration camps Even now, when buildings are new with well trained teachers, some children who arrive dont speak for days while others go to very drastic measures such as suicide The children of the Natives are always surrounded by relative, are seldom forced to do anything against their will, are seldom screamed at or beaten therefore, when they enter these schools, they experience a completely different environment The schools consist of impersonality instead of close human contact; a sterile, cold atmosphere, unfamiliar routine, language problems, and above all, the clock (which is a white mans time, not Indian time) The schools were intended as an alternative to the outright extermination seriously advocated by generals Sherman and Sheridan they were established by the so-called do-gooders The Indian children realized that they were not wanted by the Indians, nor wanted by the Whites as a result, they became alcoholics Solving the Indian Problem: by making Indians into whites St. Francis a Christian boarding school for the Indians; although the school is now run by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, during the 1960s, it was still run by the Church at these schools, children were beaten, treated harshly, given inadequate food, were not allowed to meet with their families, except for one week a year, and were forced to pray in the Christian way, as opposed to the Indian way Beating was the common punishment for not doing homework, for arriving late, etc According to Crow Dog, the Native children were treated so badly that she hated and mistrusted every white person until much later when she met sincere white people she claims that racism breeds racism in reverse In winter, dorm rooms were freezing cold, whereas the nun rooms were warm; the children had to eat old food with bugs and rocks in it sometimes, while the nuns enjoyed the finest foods When the girls first arrived at the schools, their braids were chopped off and they were dumped into tubs of rubbing alcohol to get the germs off Many of the nuns were German immigrants from Bavaria Crow Dog and two of her friends put together a newspaper called the Red Panther, in which they exposed the reality of the schools they distributed to the newspaper as much as they could Girls who were near-white were given preference the nuns perceived them as coming from good families they were treated better, given better food, and given better tasksCHAPTER 51: STILL SEPARATE, STILL UNEQUAL: AMERICAS EDUCATIONAL APARTHEID Jonathan Kozol 1954: U.S. Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education made it a federal crime for institution of education to segregate children based on race in public schools was an attempt to challenge racial and class inequality Schools that were already deeply segregated twenty-fine-thirty years ago are no less segregated now, whereas schools that were voluntarily or forcefully integrated have been rapidly resegregating since 2002-2003: 87% of public-school enrolment was Black or Hispanic in Chicago; in Washington, 94% of children were Black/Hispanics with less than 5% White; similar patterns were noted in other states Most of these areas are racially mixed areas; therefore, it is apparent that the racial segregation of children is a conscious decision of parents For example, in Seattle neighbourhood where 50% of residents are Caucasian, 95% of students at the neighbourhood elementary school were Black the Caucasians chose to send their children to schools that were predominantly white Establishment of the school Martin Luther King Jr. in an attempt to reduce racial segregation; was built in an upper-middle-class white neighbourhood however, children found at this school are Black or Hispanic students who could not obtain admission to more successful schools The reality of racial segregation has been sweetened by surrogate vocabularies, such as words like diversity and rich variations of ethnic backgrounds when this so-called diversity is studied within sch
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