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Midterm

Chapter 13- Work- MIDTERM including lecture, textbook, and selected terms notes.


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA02H3
Professor
Malcolm Mac Kinnon
Study Guide
Midterm

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Chapter 13: Work- MIDTERM
Selected Terms:
Manchester-first big manufacturing city. Industrializing.
Ideology “manchesturism” laissez faire - leave the
markets alone, don’t interefere. 1820-1860- production
in industrial, went up 300%.
Karl Polanyi
Medium of Exchange- when you have exchange, money
is involved.
In-Kind Exchanges- Exchanges were in-kind exchanges-
governed by customary equivalence means ex. a bushel
of wheat is five chickens. Basically exchanges where you
don’t use money.
Commodity- Labour commodities land this is why we
go into labour markets as a career. “People will buy
your labour/services power”. Commodities is products
manufactured.
Staples Irish Potato Famine- 1850 Irish depend on the
potato. raw materials aka staples, or manufacturing
Welland, Trent, and Rideau Canals- Canada engaged in
mega transportation projects. Canal system was built
called the Welland Canal to transport. They carried
barges, which carried bulked goods. Rideau Canal is in
Ottawa, Trent Canal, in Ontario. 1840 ish. Lots of irish
labour and chinese labour. You need mass
transportation system to have mass production.
Infrastructure
Deindustrialization
Rariff
Craft Guilds
Division of Labour- more specialized work, thus more
division in labour. adam smith wealth of nation” book
smith talks about the manufacturing of pins/needles
this is in 18th century scotland. One worker made the
complete deal, standards of efficiency of work came in
and narrowing division of labour. Now 20 workers
makes the deal. Basically 20 people made the entire pin.
The Bunkhouse Man- “resource extraction” by Edmund
Bradwin. Place where workers lived, ex. miners, etc.
immigrants from china and europe. Lived in workcamps.
Transcontinental
Wildcats- unauthorized strike. Illegal strike, (in order to
go on strike, you have to go through a process).
Essential service ex. police, firefighters, or bus drivers.
Western miners, formed the “revolutionary socialist
party” union
Strikes
Species Being- Marx- new form of work doesn’t allow
people to achieve, creative flavour.
Urban Proletariat
Humanism
Intrinsic gratification- work should be performed for its
own sake. The work in itself is rewarding and fulfilling, it
gives people the sense of intrinsic gratification of
working. Craftsmen owned their own tools, products,
and raw materials. Ex. clean work environment,
supervision, etc.
Extrinsic gratification- not directly related to work
related tasks, ex. job benefits, opportunities of
promotion, security, good pay, etc. tangible motivation.
Job Discretion- aka responsibility idea that people
have their own plan (never fixed, but fluid)
basically if you can control your job/plan.
1911 Taylor changes this.
Scientific Management
Separation between planning and implementation- now
managers plan, and workers carry out managers plan.
(before it was vice versa)
Self- Actualization- Maslow to aspire to become self
actualized. Workers could develop self when their jobs

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are self fulfilling. Work should give opportunity for self
actualization
Objectification of Self
Compartmentalize- work is carpentalized. Set aside
work from part of life. Work vs. Leisure. Work is apart of
life process. Aka Perceptual Unity
Max Weber and Disenchantment
Systemize
Idiot-proofing
Sequential Interdependence- ex. worker #82 needs to
do their part of the job and be there to do it because it
breaks the chain of work, thus worker #83 can’t
proceed to do their job. The system breaks down.
Bureaucracy- people specialist under organization.
Government split into categories to carry out specialty.
Taylorism- to eliminate unnecessary actions and greatly
improve their efficiency. Workers become a “machine”
apart of large machine.
Infinitesimal- really small (relating to meaninglessness,
feeling that they didn’t create the product although
they created a small part of it)
Social Deprivation- aka Isolation- ex. work is too noisy
for workers to communicate to other workers example
a factory. Or the workers are too far apart from each
other. (machine tending- tied to their station at work,
they can’t leave that area of their work)
Self-Fulfillment
Instrumentally- the place where you can make money
Depersonalized
Lower Aristocracy(highest of social class): nobility
Fealty- faithfulness/loyalty to anyone
In-kind
Proletarians- working class. Industrial wage-earner.
Marxist theory, the worker has an only asset of labor
sold to an employee
Mercantile System- trading amongst merchants
Satanic Mill
Wheelwright
Economy- macro entity. Consumption, production, and distribution is Economy. Ex. macbook. Made in china and
consumed by us over here.
Productivity- “secret of wealth” making more, less effort/cheaper price/less workers. This has an effect on workers,
workers are either displaced or retrained. This is how global wealth has increased.
Markets- Low supply + high demand = high prices
High supply + low demand = low prices
Reach a price equilibrium. Market societies live longer, more educated, healthier, wealthier. Markets are not all good,
ex. laid off work.
Staples- Canada is a staple economy- meaning we export raw materials, we have an abundance of it.
Division of labour- more specialized work, thus more division in labour.
3 divisions in work-
Post industrial work- provision of services. Business sector/tertiary sector.
Manufacturing sector- secondary sector, declines in developed societies like ours. We price ourselves out of the
competition. Unless we can make that up w competition than we cant compete globally.
3 revolutions-
Agricultural- Last ice age. Interglacials- between ice ages.
Three truly revolutionary events have taken place in the history of human labour.
In each revolution, a different sector of the economy rose to dominance.
Beginning in England, the Industrial Revolution spread to Western Europe, North America, Russia, and Japan
within a century, making manufacturing the dominant economic sector.
The ice age ended- civilization began, ex. settlements occurred.
Industrial revolution- “iron horse”- trains, steampowered trains (drives the engine)- this increased transportation
Postindustrial revolution- service industry
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