SOCA02 final exam notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

SOCA02 Final Exam Chapter #17: Education - Displaced organize religion as main formal knowledge st - Second in importance as agent of socialization (family is 1 ) - Functionalist argument: o Achievement outcomes assigned in proportion to individual success in satisfying job- relevant tests of capacity o NOT ascription outcomes assigned to circumstances and traits for which individuals have no responsibility o Meritocracy social hierarchy in which rank is allocated by tests of individual capacity - Conflict argument: o Schooling reproduces differences cultural capital and thus preserves class differences - Both theorists agree that education is a prelude to inequalities in work and manner of living - BUT they differ sharply on whether mass education results in class assignments that are just - Sociologists distinguish: o Educational achievement learning or skill that an individual acquires o Education attainment number of years of schooling completed or degrees earned - Hidden curriculum teaches obedience to authority and conformity to cultural norms and influences content of classroom lessons - Gellner homogenize future citizens by indoctrination into common culture o nationalism, imagined communities o proposed mass education was the basis for modern society - Bourdieu: education was central to the creation and transmission of o cultural capital learning and skills that ensure superior positions in production activity o pedagogic violence application by teachers of punishments intended to discourage any deviation from the dominant culture teachers insist there is only one way to spell or do arithmetic o Learning involves discipline or pedagogic violence application by teachers of punishments intended to discourage any deviation from the dominant culture - Credential inflation when it takes increasingly more degrees to qualify for a particular job - The riot in St. Leonard turning point in Quebec history o Bill 101 French language of public administration o Allphones children with neither English nor French backgrounds - % of people with university degree was 7 times higher in 2001 than in 1951 - Spread of Mass Schooling: o Development of printing press books were expensive when it used to be scribed in the past, but after the printing press was developed, prices for books dramatically decreased o Protestantism people needed education to read the bible, education of priests was the primary motivation for foundation of universities o Spread of democracy free education for all children, tax-supported schools o Industrialism education recognized as absolute necessity for creating an industrial economy - schools of dissent challenge authoritarian regimes and promote social change - Durkheim: human beings are town between egotistic needs and moral impulses; education institutions must endure that moral side predominates o By sense of discipline and morality in children, schools make society cohesive - Meritocracy: social hierarchy in where rank corresponds to individual capacities fairly tested against a common standard o Children born to lower ranked families can count on upward mobility - Frank Parkin: education can be used as means of social exclusion setting boundaries so that certain social opportunities and positions are restricted to members of one group - Randall Collins: Credential Inflation when it takes even more degrees to qualify for a particular job o He believed that social class and race is significant with education - Timothy Baits: measures male vs. female intelligence top 2% and bottom 2% are mostly males - Sociologists believe that IQ reflects social standing they can only measure acquired proficiency with a cultural system even smart Canadian students will score poorly if tested in Mongolian o Under-privileged groups score lower because they dont have the training and cultural background needed to score high o Flynn Effect: increasing IQ scores appear on every major test over time - Schools reproduce the stratification system hidden curriculum, IQ testing and tracking, and the self-fulfilling prophecy that disadvantages and minority students are bound to do poorly - Men earn more trade certificated, predominant in engineering/natural science/commerce/administration - Female earn more college diplomas, predominant in humanities/social sciences, more participation in post-secondary education Chapter #7: Deviance and Crime - Crime has been among the top three issues since the 1970s in Canada - Two basic types of theories that explain deviance and crime o Motivational theories identify social factors that drive people to commit deviance and crime o Constraint theories identify social factors that impose deviance and crime (or conventional behaviour) on people - Sutherlands Motivational Theory: o Learning theory or differential association theory people learn to value deviant or non-deviant lifestyles depending on whether their social environment leads them to associate more with deviants or non-deviants. - Labeling theory deviance results not so much from actions of the deviant as from the response of others, who label the rule breaker deviant - Deviance: breaking a norm; violation of an accepted rule of behaviour o Informal punishment: mild sanction thats imposed during face-to-face interaction Ex) gossip, shaming, stigmatization Stigmatized: ppl are negatively evaluated b/c of a marker that distinguishes them o Formal punishment: results from breaking laws, laws that are enforced by govt bodies - John Hagans 3 dimensions of deviance and crime:o Severity of the social response o Perceived harmfulness of the act o Degree of public agreement - John Hagans 4 types of deviance and crime: o Social diversion minor acts of deviance o Social deviations more serious subject to institutional sanction o Conflict crime illegal act that MANY people consider harmful punishable by state o Consensus crime illegal act that ALL people consider harmful state inflicts severe punishment - Crimes against women Diane Scully study of convicted rapists show rape situation has improved - Victimless crimes: violations of the law in which no victim is identified or steps forward - Victimization surveys: ppl are asked whether theyve been victims of crime - Explanations for Declining Crime Rates o Increased policing o # of young men in pop has o Booming economy Variable most strongly correlated w/ crime rate: male unemployment rate o American researchers argue b/c of legalization of abortion [for US] - Scott Kody 1 of the most ruthless gang leaders; later decided to reform & began a crusade against gangs - Motivational theories: identify the social factors that drive ppl to commit deviance & crime o What motivates ppl to break rules? - Constraint Theories: identify the social factors that impose deviance & crime on ppl o How social constr
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