Socio Exam Terms
Power- Is the ability to impose one’s will on others.
Authority- Is legitimate, institutionalized power.
Traditional Authority- The norm in tribal and feudal societies, involves rulers inheriting authority
through family or clan ties. The right of a family or clan to monopolize leadership is widely
believed to derive from the will of god.
Legal-Rational Authority- Is typical of modern societies. It derives from respect for the law.
Laws specify how a person can achieve office. People generally believe these laws are rational. If
someone achieves office by following these laws, people respect his or her authority.
Charismatic Authority- Is based on belief in the claims of extraordinary individuals that they are
inspired by a god or some higher principle.
A Political Revolution- Is the overthrow of political institutions by an opposition movement and
its replacement by new institution.
The State- Consists of the institutions responsible for formulating and carrying out a country’s
laws and public policies.
Civil Society- Is the private sphere of social life.
Authority- States sharply restrict citizen control of the state.
Totalitarian State- Citizens lack almost any control of the state.
Democracy- Citizens exercise a high degree of control over the state. They do this mainly by
choosing representatives in regular, competitive elections.
Political Parties- Are organizations that compete for control of government. In the process, they
give voice to policy alternatives and rally adult citizens to vote.
Lobbies- Are organizations formed by special interest groups to advise and influence Politian’s.
The Mass Media- Are print, radio, television, and other communications technologies. In a
democracy, the mass media help keep the public informed about the quality of government.
Public Opinion- Refers to the values and attitudes of the adult population as a whole.
Social Movements- Are collective attempts to change all or part of the political or social order by
means of rioting, petitioning, striking, demonstrating, and establishing lobbies, unions, and