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second half of soc notes just the key terms from the book, put on a few pages for ease of access

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA02H3
Professor
Mc Kinon

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Socio Exam Terms
Power- Is the ability to impose ones will on others.
Authority- Is legitimate, institutionalized power.
Traditional Authority- The norm in tribal and feudal societies, involves rulers inheriting authority
through family or clan ties. The right of a family or clan to monopolize leadership is widely
believed to derive from the will of god.
Legal-Rational Authority- Is typical of modern societies. It derives from respect for the law.
Laws specify how a person can achieve office. People generally believe these laws are rational. If
someone achieves office by following these laws, people respect his or her authority.
Charismatic Authority- Is based on belief in the claims of extraordinary individuals that they are
inspired by a god or some higher principle.
A Political Revolution- Is the overthrow of political institutions by an opposition movement and
its replacement by new institution.
The State- Consists of the institutions responsible for formulating and carrying out a country’s
laws and public policies.
Civil Society- Is the private sphere of social life.
Authority- States sharply restrict citizen control of the state.
Totalitarian State- Citizens lack almost any control of the state.
Democracy- Citizens exercise a high degree of control over the state. They do this mainly by
choosing representatives in regular, competitive elections.
Political Parties- Are organizations that compete for control of government. In the process, they
give voice to policy alternatives and rally adult citizens to vote.
Lobbies- Are organizations formed by special interest groups to advise and influence Politians.
The Mass Media- Are print, radio, television, and other communications technologies. In a
democracy, the mass media help keep the public informed about the quality of government.
Public Opinion- Refers to the values and attitudes of the adult population as a whole.
Social Movements- Are collective attempts to change all or part of the political or social order by
means of rioting, petitioning, striking, demonstrating, and establishing lobbies, unions, and
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political parties.
Pluralist Theory- Holds that power is widely dispersed. As a result, no group enjoys
disproportionate influence, and decisions are usually reached through negotiation and
compromise.
Elite Theory- Holds that small groups occupying the command posts of the most influential
institutions make the important decisions that profoundly affect all members of society.
Moreover, they do so without much regard for elections or public opinion.
Elite- Are small groups that control the command posts of institutions.
A Ruling Class- Is self-conscious, cohesive group of people in elite positions. They act to
advance their common interests and corporate executives lead them.
Power Resource Theory- Holds that the distribution of power among major classes partly
accounts for the successes and failures of different political parties.
State- Centered Theory- Holds that the state itself can structure political life, to some degree
independently of the way power is distributed between classes and other groups at a given time.
Formal Democracy- Involves regular, competitive elections.
A Liberal Democracy- Is a county whose citizens enjoy regular, competitive elections and the
freedoms and constitutional protections that make political participation and competition
meaningful.
Post materialism- Is a theory that claims that growing equality and prosperity in the rich
industrialized countries have resulted in a shift from class-based politics to value-based politics.
War- Is a violent armed conflict between politically distinct groups who fight to protect or
increase their control of territory.
Educational Achievement- Is the actual learning of valuable skills and knowledge.
Educational Attainment- Is the number of years of schooling successfully competed or, for higher
learning, the degrees or certificates earned.
Assortative Mating- Occurs when marriage partners are selected so that spouses are similar on
various criteria of social rank.
The Logic of Industrialism- Is a specification by functionalists of requirements that social
institutions must satisfy before industrialism can be achieved, such as an education system big
enough to teach many people a common cultural standard and rich enough to provide specialized
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Description
Socio Exam Terms Power- Is the ability to impose ones will on others. Authority- Is legitimate, institutionalized power. Traditional Authority- The norm in tribal and feudal societies, involves rulers inheriting authority through family or clan ties. The right of a family or clan to monopolize leadership is widely believed to derive from the will of god. Legal-Rational Authority- Is typical of modern societies. It derives from respect for the law. Laws specify how a person can achieve office. People generally believe these laws are rational. If someone achieves office by following these laws, people respect his or her authority. Charismatic Authority- Is based on belief in the claims of extraordinary individuals that they are inspired by a god or some higher principle. A Political Revolution- Is the overthrow of political institutions by an opposition movement and its replacement by new institution. The State- Consists of the institutions responsible for formulating and carrying out a countrys laws and public policies. Civil Society- Is the private sphere of social life. Authority- States sharply restrict citizen control of the state. Totalitarian State- Citizens lack almost any control of the state. Democracy- Citizens exercise a high degree of control over the state. They do this mainly by choosing representatives in regular, competitive elections. Political Parties- Are organizations that compete for control of government. In the process, they give voice to policy alternatives and rally adult citizens to vote. Lobbies- Are organizations formed by special interest groups to advise and influence Politians. The Mass Media- Are print, radio, television, and other communications technologies. In a democracy, the mass media help keep the public informed about the quality of government. Public Opinion- Refers to the values and attitudes of the adult population as a whole. Social Movements- Are collective attempts to change all or part of the political or social order by means of rioting, petitioning, striking, demonstrating, and establishing lobbies, unions, and www.notesolution.com
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