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Textbook & Lecture Notes for Midterm

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

SociologyMidterm Notes th Lecture#1Jan13 UltimateQuestions Are all waysof life equally futile, or is it possibleto live ameaningful life - Experiencefiltersperception - Cultureis selectiveperception Four Stagesof filtering in sociological research Decidewhich problemsareworth investigating Leadresearchersto formulateandadopt favouredtheoriesfor interpreting andexplaining thoseproblems Interpretationsareinfluencedby previousresearch Methodsusedto gather datamould researchers perception A sociologistsvaluesmay reflect thetypical perceptions Biaseseasily influenceobservations Biasesoftenleadusto draw incorrect conclusions Sociologistshavetried to develp[ waysof collecting, observing, andthinking about evidence Descriptivestudies-> tells you what happened, descriptive Descriptive-> Describing during aperiod of time Static Descriptive-> describing something in aspecific time(ex. 2008) Explanatory Studies-> why thingshappen, askwhy ? 1946-> Baby Boom. 2 World War Building Blocksof Sociological ResearchMicro vs. Macro Conceptslabel usedto identify different things. Alienation I havebecomecomfortably numb Powerlessness Meaninglessness Self estrangement Social Isolation Social Class Education Occupation Income Youcant doresearchunlessyouvary theconcept Methodological Problems Measurementsresearchersusemental conceptsconstructs(race,gender) someconceptshavemorethanonevalue (variables, height, wealth) Hypothesesaretentativeprovisional -> clear andprecise Imperial Generalization Social Integration -> social solidarity -> needto feel apart of something (DIRKHEIM) Social Solidarity is weak in citiesandstrong in rural areas. Strong in traditional times,weak now adays. ResearchCycle= 1.FormulateQuestion -> 2. Review Literature-> 3. Select Method -> 4. Collect Data-> 5. Analyze Data-> 6. Report Findings. www.notesolution.comIndependent variablePresumedcause(age) in cause-and-effect relationships Dependant variablePresumedeffect (health problems) in cause-and-effect relationships Lecture#2Jan20 CHAPTER 2METHODS Main Methodsof Sociology Field Methods(participation) observation of peoplein their natural setting usedetatchedobservation -> classifying behaviour of interest according to predeterminedscheme(age,race) Experiments Surveys Analysisof existing documentsandofficial stats Interval Data(Quantitative) ->number representsactual reality (1:1 correspondence) Ordinal Data(Qualitative, Nominal) -> CategoricalQualitativedata(not anumber ethnic, race,religion) Religiosity -> how religiousoneis Methodoligical Issues Reliability degreeto which ameasurement procedureyieldsconsistent results(do over again andget same) Validity degreeto which ameasureactually measureswhat it intendsto measure Generalizability whenresearchfindingsapply beyondspecific caseexamined Causality accessingcauseandeffect relationsamongvariables Surveysaremost common usedform of research-> want abackgroundof you. Sampling Ask questionsabout knowledge,behaviour, face-to-face, telephone Sample(part of agroup) Sampling frame(list of all peoplein apopulation of interest) Population (wholegroup of interest) Probability samplewith thesecharacteristics(chosenby chance,maintain randomness) Random Sampling is neededfor generalizability . Over sample= bias Stratified RandomSample Issuesonvalidity doestheinstrument measurewhat youwant to measure MaximizeValidity: Undercounting somecategoriesof population becauseof animperfect sampling frame Non-responserefusal to participate Responsebiasinaccurateanswers
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