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Midterm Vocab + Def

Course Code
Ann Mullen
Study Guide

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Chapter 1 (week 1)
Replication Repetition of a research study in order to either confirm the findings of previous
order to either confirm the findings of a pervious study or bring them into
TheorySystematic explanation for observation that relate to a particular aspect of life:
juvenile delinquency, for ex> or perhaps social stratification or political
AttributeCharacteristic of people or things
VariablesLogical groupings of attributes. Variable gender is made up of attributes
IdiographicAn approach to explanation in which we seek to exhaust the idiosyncratic
causes of a particular condition or event. Imagine trying to list all reasons why
you chose to attend your particular university. Given all those reasons, its
difficult to imagine your making any other choices
NomotheticApproach to explanation in which we seek to identify a few causal factors that
generally impact a class of conditions or events. Imagine 2 or 3 key factors that
determine which universities students choose, such as proximity, reputation,
and so forth
Induction Logical model in which general principles are developed from specific
observations. Having noted that ex> Jews and Catholics are more likely to vote
Liberal than Protestants are, you might conclude that religious minorities in
Canada are more affiliated with the Liberal party and explain why.
Deduction Logical model in which specific expectations of hypotheses are developed on the
basis of general principles. Ex> Starting from the general principle that all
deans are meanies, you might anticipate that this one wont let you change
Chapter 9
RespondentPerson who provides data for analysis by responding to a survey questionnaire
QuestionnaireDocument containing questions and other types of items designed to solicit
information appropriate to analysis. Questionnaires are used primarily in
survey research but also in experiments, field research, and other modes of
BiasQuality of measurements devices that tends to result in a misrepresentation of
what is being measured in a particular direction
Contingency question Survey question intended for only some respondents, determined by their
responses to some other question. Ex> all respondents might be asked whether
they belong to the Cosa Nostra and only those who said yes would be asked how
often they go to company meetings and picnics. The latter would be a
contingency question
Response rate a.k.a: completion rate; # of people participating in a survey divided by # selected
in sample, in form of percentage. In self-administered curveys, a.k.a return
rate: % of questionnaires sent out that are returned
Interview Data-collection encounter in which one person asks questions of another.
Interviews may be conducted face-to-face or by telephone
Probe Technique employed in interviewing to solicit more complete answer to

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question. Its nondirective phrase or Q used to encourage respondent to
elaborate on answer. Ex>anything more, how is that?
Secondary analysisForm of research in which the data collected and processed by one researcher
are reanalyzed- foten for different purpose- by another. This is especially
appropriate in case of survey data. Data archives are repositories or libraries
for storage and distribution of data for secondary analysis
CHAPTER 5 (week 2)
Reification Process of regarding things that are not real as real
Conceptualization Mental process whereby fuzzy and imprecise notions(concepts) are made more
specific and precise. So you want to study prejudice. What do you mean by
prejudice? Are there different kinds? what are they?
IndicatorObservation that we choose to consider as reflection of variable we wish to
study. Ex>attending religious services might be considered indicator of
Dimension Specifiable aspect or fact of a concept. Ex> religiosity, ritual dimension, belief
dimension, devotion
Specification Process through which concepts are made more specific
Nominal measureVariable whose attributes only have characteristics of being jointly exhaustive
and mutually exclusive. Level of measurement describing variable that has
attributes that are merely different from each other, as distinguished from
ordinal, interval, or ratio measures. Ex>gender
Ordinal measure Level of measurement describing variable with attributes one can rank-order
along some dimension. Ex>socioeconomic status as composed of attributes high,
medium, low
Interval measure Level of measurement describing a variable whose attributes are rank-ordered
and have equal distances between adjacent attributes. Ex> thermometer
Ratio measure Level of measurement describing a variable whose attributes have all the
qualities of nominal, ordinal, and interval measures, and in addition are based
on true zero point ex> height
ReliabilityQuality of measurement method that suggest that same data would have been
collected each time in repeated observation of same phenomenon.
ValidityTerm describing measure that accurately reflects the concept it is intended to
Face validityQuality of indicator that makes it seem reasonable measure of some variable.
Ex> Frequency of attendance at religious services is some indication of persons
religiosity seems to make sense without lot of explanation.
validityDegree to which a measure related with some external criterion. Ex> validity of
occupational qualifying examinations is shown in their ability to predict future
evaluations of individuals’ job performances (predictive validity)
Construct validityDegree to which a measure related to other variables as expected w/in system of
theoretical relationships
Content validityDegree to which measure covers range of meanings included w/in concept
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