SOCB42H3 Study Guide - Education In France, Endogamy, Homicide
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Lecture 1 May 5, 2010
*Hannah ardent – explanation for why philosophers tend to stay away from politics int heir
philosophies (do not memorize the Greek terms, unless covered in class).
* midterm – all mcqs Final exam – short answers n essay questions (not cumulative)
Theorists figure out theories as response to issues of their time (marx – capitalism, class, worker, etc.)
Sociology appeared as a scientific field in the early 1900’s 1910 (Durkheim – established the first
department of sociology at some uni in france)
He wanted to unify the French educational system, attend the sam euni without difficulty cause they
would have same previous knowledge. (a student from one town knew as much as a student from
THEORY - Integrated set of concepts and statement about relationships between phenomena
concepts(every theory consists of concepts - family, class, education etc. categorize things together,
linking similar things together in a concept;describe common characteristics all phenomena in diff
degree of social mobility has increased over the last 20 years (class status or socio
economic status) EX: all concepts are phenomena. Every ones family is phenomena, but what they
share that makes them all family is concept.
Phenomena cause and affect. Education becomes the cause of downward social mobility (the
relation between phenomena (something that exists, a concrete events or object that exists in reality,
an occurrence a perceived object (papers or an event (droppin the paper).
Cause and effect (explanation) VS mechanism (explication)
Cause & effect statement about causes of a phenomena. discover causes, why it happens or why it
Mechanism answers how exactly that happen sequence of events. What was the mechanism of
that phenomena (the way in which the causes had influenced the situation so that the event
happened in conclusion. (c) (this in between is the explication) (e)
Causes (parent income) (this is explanation)( education, social network, marriage <class
endogamy>) Effect. Those factors are explication. ALL THESE ARE PHENOMENA – PARENTAL
INCOME, SOCIAL MOBILITY, EDUCATION, SOCIAL NETWORK, MARRIAGE, EDUCATION. ETC.
Description just describes phenomena – what exists, what’s happening. not a theory, doesnt say
how or why things happening, only says WHAT is happening. EX Marriage increases risk of homicide
for women and decreases it for men.
<HIGHER CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL LIMIT FOR MEN THAN FOR WOMEN, A FACTOR?>
Nomothetic explanation – general law, universally applicable laws (law of mortality – all humans are
mortal) plate died because he was human, and humans are all mortal (obviously, an explanation for
his death) a lot of work to established a general regularity, a general law. For all members of
marriages, for all members of working class, for all Canadians, etc.
IDEOGRAPHIC explanation – one concrete phenomena, one person, or one group, or one events
unique history (development)and you explain what happen to them by what happen before, causes
and conditions unique to that particular phenomena. operate only on that specific person/group.
(important how actors, or those subjects them selves understand the phenomena) some what like a
detailed case study, what happen to a particular ____ and why it happened.
Social construction – people react not to their social environment, but to the way they perceive it.
(how you see it, may not really be what it is like) <belongs to ideographic explanation>
MAX WEBER—true founder of socio? – synthesis – no explanation is complete unless it includes
general laws about a phenomena and the understanding of it as the actor understood it.
Upper (own enterprises) upper middle middle (uni degrees for their work working class
(manual workers, factories machine etc.) under class (people who are in long term poverty)
SUPPORTS WEBERS IDEA, general laws about class, and how you see your self fit in the class, ONLY
APPLICABLE IN NORTH AMERICA, might be diff if your in London.
STRUCTURE OF THEORIES
Concept (Aristotle) – concept is the thought about the essence of that whereof we are thinking.
most important characteristics of a group or class or phenomena
CONCEPT ABSTRACT (concepts tel us what makes them [the entire class] different form that of any
other.. important ones; concept of chair cannot include arm rest, that makes it arm chair, so its not
the same and cant include that)
PHENOMENA CONCRETE (what makes the single thing different, laptop from chair pc etc.). legal,
religious, sexual in a marriage, but VS CONCEPT, WHAT MARRIAGE IN WHOLE IS DIFFERENT FROM
BROTHER SISTER, WITH SAME PHENOMENA.. concept broader, phenomena more narrow and a sebd
division of that.
Relationship between cause and affect – correlation – usually come together, if one changes, the
other does too. Stocks and babies – no causes but ther is correlation. (third variable, rural urban
settlement, more developed, wealthier, lesser kids. Villages, more religious encourage more babies,
don’t support abortion much.