- The less integrated and regulated by involvement in personally meaningful
interdependent relationships more likely to engage in deviant behaviour.
The study of spatial and temporal relations among ppl & how they are affected by social and
economic competition for space and resources. Ethnic groups, occupational cultures of social
space as species seeking individual and group survival in competitive enviro.
Human ecology theory of urban dynamics
1. Invasion: intro of new groups or culture in to territory, may invade a district formely
dominated by another etc. 2. Segregation: separation of species 3. Natural areas: product of
unplanned processes these natural boundaries are rarely entirely consistent with official
administrative territorial units 4. Conflict: competition b/w groups over use of territory eg.
Gang warfare over street territory. 5. Dominance: strength of one group relative to others, 6.
Accommodation: process whereby diff species (groups/land) achieve nonconflictual
adjustment. Weaker adjust to dominance of others 7. Assimilation: complete absorption of one
group into way of life of another 8. Succession: takeover by a new group 9. Symbiosis:
interdependence among groups
Location: in geographical refers to position on a land surface, as ecological refers to the
distribution of ppl in social as well as geographical space eg. Criminal area = matter of
geographical location and partly interaction and networking.
Ecological fallacy: assumption that if high crime area has large # of immigrants, stuents etc then
these are the criminals
Ecological Mapping: detailed maps of city/district used to show where deviant activities and
social problems are concentrated.
Thrashers version of mapping : zone 1: businesses, commercial building, banks, few residents
and criminals live here, target places for crime, zone 2: transitional area, home to unskilled day
workers and immigrants zone 3: area settled by stable working class second generation of
immigrants, zone 4: suburban middle class, zone 5: exurbia commuter zone.
Ethnography: continual monitoring of events as unfold in natural setting, documented social
worlds and ways of life within city neighbourhoods through a combination of field work. Looked
at each group as if it were an urban tribe with unique with characteristics reflecting place in