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SOCB05 - Finals Exam Study Notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Rania Salem

Chapter 2: Paradigms, Theory and Research • Paradigms – model/framework for understanding o shapes what we see and how we understand it o Often hard to recognize – implicit, assumed, taken for granted. • Paradigms = points from which to view • Views/feelings on topics are as a result of way we have been socialized. o Conflict paradigm causes us to see social behaviour in one way o Interactionalist paradigm causes us to see it differently • Recognizing existence of paradigms can allow understanding of others’crazy behaviour - because they are operating in a different paradigm *our paradigm isn’t necessarily reality • Unlike natural sciences, social sciences never disregard paradigms. Rather they become unpopular and regain popularity. Each touches on various issues that others don’t. • Paradigm = not true/false just different ways of looking – open new understanding, suggest theories and inspire research Macrotheory and Microtheory  • Macrotheory = understanding the bigger picture of whole institutions/societies and interactions amongst societies e.g. international relations, interactions within the family • Microtheory = understanding social life at an intimate level of individuals and their interactions e.g. behaviour of girls differ from boys Early Positivism • Auguste Compte coined term sociologie in 1822 as society as a phenomenon that can be studied scientifically • Used to positivism to describe his approach in contrast to previous negative elements Conflict Paradigm • Karl Marx suggested that social behaviour could best be seen as a process of conflict, the attempt to dominate others and avoid being dominated o Focused on struggle amongst economic classes – capitalism and oppression • George Simmel – small scale conflict o conflict of members of a close knit group tend to be intense amongst those who don’t share feelings of belonging/intimacy • Michel Chossudovsky – analysis of IMF and World Bank saying they were increasing poverty rather than eradicating it • Hoffman – physical violence amongst siblings as a result of rivalry for parents attention • This paradigm usually focuses on class/gender/ethnic struggles but can also be applied to other groups that have competing interests Symbolic Interactionism • Simmel focused more on micro issues in comparison to Marx who focused on macro issues • Simmel one of the first to influence sociology in NorthAmerica – focus on interactions influenced George Mead, Charles Cooley who further developed it • Cooley – primary group (family, friends, clique), looking-glass self (decide who we are based on those around us) • Mead – importance of human ability to take role of other: empathy, role of communications in human affairs, felt that most interactions revolve around reaching a common understanding through the use of language and other symbolic systems, thus symbolic interactionism Ethnomethodology • Harold Garfinkel – people are continually social structures through their actions and interactions – creating realities, people constantly try to make sense of life, everyone is acting as social scientist, thus ethnomethodology (study of the people) • Break rules = violate people’s expectations/norms to study it • e.g. studying people’s behaviour at malls, unspoken rules Structural Functionalism • aka social systems theory – social entity such as organization can be viewed as an organism • social system is made of parts, each of which contributed to functioning of the whole (like human body) • looks for functions served by social system e.g. functions of police • when studying functions of poverty/racism researchers seek to understand the roles such things play in larger society as a way to understanding why they persist and how to eliminate them Feminist Paradigm • focus on gender difference and how they relate to rest of social organizations • draw attention to oppression of women in societies, challenge notions about consensus in society noting that norms of society are often written by a small portion of the society • they often write about values, beliefs and norms that they share amongst themselves • has led to recognition of intellectual differences between men and women • subjective knowledge = derived from personal, subjective experiences including intuition • constructed knowledge = position in which women view all knowledge as contextual, experience themselves as creators of knowledge • feminist research emphasizes openness, engagement and development of potentially long lasting relationships • Dorothy Smith – understanding of social life/institutions has been presented from view of men, must include women’s experience and standpoint, acknowledge men’s overall dominance in society and impact of their power and privilege • Various distinctions within this paradigm = liberal, Marxist, radical, cultural, etc. Rational Objectivity Reconsidered • Positivistic scientists – assume social reality can be explained rationally not always the case o E.g. economics = assumes that people will choose highest paying job but ignores factors such as tradition, loyalty, image, etc. o Raises question of whether social life abides by rational principles at all o Critique – personal feelings influence problems scientists choose to study o Questions of objectivity/subjectivity – all experiments are subjective Elements of Social Theory • Paradigms – provide ways of looking at life, grounded in a set of assumptions about nature if reality. • Theories – systematic sets of interrelated statements intended to explain some aspects of social life. Flesh out specific paradigms.Aims at explaining. • Social research observation = seeing, hearing, touching • Fact in social science = phenomenon that has been observed • Theory attempts to explain observations that relate to a particular aspect of life by using concepts (abstract elements representing classes of phenomena within the field of study e.g. social class) • Variable = set of attributes, kind of concept • Axioms/postulates = fundamental assertions taken to be true on which a theory is grounded juvenile delinquency axiom might be, “The ability to obtain material comforts legally is greater for wealthy than poor.” • Next step, preposition = specific conclusions about relationships among concepts that are derived from axiomatic groundwork e.g. poor youth are more likely to break the law to gain material comforts than rich youth • Hypotheses = derived from preposition, specific, testable expectation about empirical reality that follows a more general preposition e.g. poor youth have higher delinquency rates than do rich youth Traditional Model of Science • 3 elements, chronologically – theory, operationalization, observation Theory • Begin with theory from which they derive possible hypotheses • e.g. as social class goes up, delinquency goes down, delinquency is inversely related to social class Operationalization • must specify the meanings of all variables involved in operational terms • literally means specifying the exact operations involved in measuring a variable • e.g. variables are social class and delinquency o delinquency = being arrested for a crime, being convicted for a crime o social class = family income • To measure these, we can ask questions via a survey such as, “What was your family’s income last year?” • Researcher must only test hypothesis based specified meaning of variables and what operational definition specifies • Operational definition = concrete and specific definition of something in terms of the operations by which observations are to categorized. this course an ‘A’will be 90% Observation • Looking at world at making measurements of what we see • Disconfirmability = possibility that observations may not support our expectations • Hypothesis testing = determining whether expectations that a hypothesis represents are indeed found to exist in real world Deductive Theory Construction • Pick topic to study e.g. What is the structure of society • Research topic - write down ideas and observations, what scholars have said • Look for patterns that other researchers found • Examine personal reactions, fears, prejudices to gain insight into human behaviour • Specify topic and specify range of phenomena that theory will address • Identify and specify major concepts and variables • Find out known prepositions about relationships amongst variables • Reason logically from those propositions to the specific topic you are studying • Example on pg. 51 Inductive Theory Construction • Observing aspects of social life then seeking to discover patterns that may point to relatively universal principles – coined grounded theory • Field research (direct observation of events in progress) • From general data derive general explanation of relationship between two variables Links between Theory and Research • Not all social science research is tightly linked with social theory, sometime theory is implicit • e.g. when determining whether a social program is effective or descriptive ethnography is done to provide useful information and insights • science rests on two pillars: theory and observation *Main Points: PAGE 55 Chapter 8: Experiments • experiments are well-suited to research projects involving limited and well-defined concepts and propositions • well-suited for hypothesis testing, better suited for explanatory vs. descriptive purposes • successful in small group interaction where you bring together a small group of subjects, assign them task then observe them looking at how group organizes itself and deals with the problem • might vary nature of task/rewards for handling nature of task • by observing differences in the way groups organize themselves we can learn about nature of small group interaction • experiments can take place outside of laboratory in natural experiments – experiments that occur in regular course of social events Classical Experiment Independent and Dependent Variables • Experiment examines effect of an independent variable on dependant variable • Independent variable takes form of experimental stimulus which is either present or absent • Dichotomous/binomial variable – has two attributed, present or absent • Experiment compares what happens when stimulus is present to what happens when it is not • To be used in an experiment both independent and dependent variables must be operationally defined that define a variety of observation methods Pretesting and Posttesting • Pretesting = measurement of dependant variable among subjects before they are exposed to a stimulus representing an independent variable • Posttesting = measurement of a dependent variable among subjects after they have been exposed to a stimulus representing an independent variable • Any differences between the two test are attributed to independent variable • Issue of validity – respondents might respond differently due to multiple tests Experimental and Control Groups • Experimental group = subjects to whom an experimental stimulus is administered • Control group = don’t receive experimental stimulus • Using control group allows researcher to detect any effects of experiment itself and important in order to prevent Hawthorne effect = researchers conducting studies a Hawthorne plant discovered that their presence affected the behaviour of workers being studied. Term now refers to any impact research has on subject of study. • Control groups also guard against any external effects in the society such as political and social changes during the course of the experiment Double­Blind Experiment • Where neither the subjects nor the experimenters know which is the experiment and which is the control • Used to prevent experimenters from prejudging results • Experimenter bias is reduced with clear and precise operational definitions of dependent variables Selecting Subjects Probability Sampling • Begin with sampling frame composed of all people in the population under study • Degree of representativeness of sample is dependent upon sample size – samples under 100 are not very representative • Social experiments rarely use as many as 100 subjects so probability sampling is rarely used to select subjects Randomization • Procedure of randomly assigning experimental subjects to experimental and control groups • Not to be confused with simple random sampling • Number all subjects sequentially and select numbers by means of a random number table • Assign odd numbered subjects to the experimental group and even numbered subjects to the control group • Larger the number of subjects, the better Matching • Pairs of subjects are matched on the basis of their similarities on one or more variables • Then one member of pair is assigned to experimental group and other to the control • Matching achieved through quota matrix – constructed with all of the most relevant characteristics and ensures that an even number of subjects from each cell of the matrix is assigned to each group • Overall description of both experiment and control group should be the same Matching vs. Randomization • Randomization is better when you don’t know which variables are relevant prior to your study, very large pool of subjects • Is possible to combine both matching and randomization – create strata then use probability sampling to select subjects Variations on Experimental Design Pre­experimental Research Design • One shot case study = Single group of subjects are measured on a dependant variable following the administration of experimental stimulus o Represents a common form of reasoning • One-group pretest-posttest design = adds a pretest for the experimental group, none for control group o Some factor other than independent variable may cause change between pretest and posttest o Offers better evidence • Static group comparison = no pretest for control and experiment groups o Eliminates the problem of questionable definitions but does not address pre-existing factors Internal Validity • Refers to possibility that conclusions drawn from experimental results may not accurately reflect what has gone on in experiment itself • Present when anything other than experimental stimulus can effect dependant variable Sources of Internal Invalidity • History – historical events may confound experiment e.g.occurrences in the news • Maturation – continual growth and change of people o long term study: may become wiser o short term study: may become bored, tired, sleepy, change typical behaviour • Testing – process of testing can influence people’s behaviour thus confounding results e.g.process of pretests/posttests • Instrumentation – process of measurement in pretesting/posttesting, using different measures of dependent variable in the two tests, hard to be sure they’re comparable • Statistical regression – sometimes appropriate to conduct experiments on subjects who start out with extreme scores but there is risk that changes occurring by virtue of subjects starting out in extreme positions and returning to norm will be attributed erroneously to effects of stimulus • Selection biases – assigning subjects to groups • Experimental mortality – subjects dropping out of experiment before it is completed thus affecting statistical comparisons and conclusions • Casual-time order – ambiguity about the time order of experimental stimulus and the dependant variable • Diffusion/imitation of treatments – when experimental and control groups communicate with each other and pass on elements of the experimental stimulus to the control group and thus no longer a control as control group is contaminated • Compensation – control group are deprived of something of value o Nurses may feel sorry for those in control group and give them extra care thus making them not a genuine control group • Compensatory rivalry – subjects deprived of experimental stimulus may try to compensate by working harder • Demoralization – feelings of deprivation within control group may result in them giving up • Classical experiment design with proper selection/assignments addresses all these problems • Design also guards against problem of history in sense that what occurs outside will effect both groups • Guards against maturation as long as subjects have been randomly assigned • Testing/instrumentation prevented because experimental and control groups are subject to same tests and experimenter effects • Selection bias prevented via random assignment of subjects External Validity • Relates to generalizability of experimental findings to the real world – do they reflect life in general society • Jeopardized if there is interaction between testing situation and experimental stimulus • Solomon four-group design = involves four groups of subjects assigned randomly from a pool • Comparisons are only meaningful if subjects are assigned randomly to different groups • Rules out interaction between testing and stimulus • Provides data for comparisons that will reveal amount of interaction that occurs • Posttest-only control group design – consists of second half of Solomon design argued to be the only thing needed in a properly designed experiment but researchers feel more comfortable with a pretest and thus it is conducted An Illustration of Experimentation • Self-concept (who we think we are and how we behave) based on how other see and treat us • Labelling theory – phenomenon of people acting in accord with ways they are perceived and labelled by others • Pygmalion effect = tendency to see in others what we’ve been led to expect • Expectations-states theory = the expectations of a dominant individual affect the performance of subordinates Natural Experiments • Not all experiments occur in laboratory • Sometimes nature designs and executes experiments that we can observe and analyze such as examining behavioral consequences of suffering from a natural disaster • Involves taking the logic of experimentation into the field to observe and the effects of stimuli in real life Strength and Weaknesses of Experimental Method • Experiments are primary tool for studying causal relationships • Strengths = isolation of experimental variable and its impact over time, can decide whether change of characteristics is attributable to experimental stimulus, require relatively little time and money, few subjects, can thus be easily replicated • Weaknesses = artificiality: social processes that occur in laboratory setting might not necessarily occur in more natural settings *Main Points: PAGE 243-44 Chapter 10: Unobtrusive Research • Methods of studying social behaviour without affecting it – includes analysis of existing statistics, content analysis, historical/comparative research Analyzing Existing Statistics • Existing stats = data analyses reported by others e.g. government agencies • Existing stats provide a historical or conceptual concept within which to locate your original research, provide main data for a social scientific inquiry • e.g. Durkheim’s Study of suicide, examined the available records and noted relationship between suicide rates and religious affiliation Units of Analysis • analysis is often not individual • aggregate nature of existing statistics can present a problem – missing data • always possible that patterns of behaviour at a group level may not reflect corresponding patterns at an individual level • avoiding the danger of ecological fallacy o general conclusions are based as much on rigorous theoretical deductions as empirical facts – correspondence between theory and fact made a counter explanation o by extensively retesting his conclusions in a variety of ways you can strengthen likelihood that they are correct Problems of Validity • measurements may not altogether valid representations of the variable and concepts we want to draw conclusions about • two ways to handle validity = logical reasoning and replication Problems of Reliability • process of record keeping affects the records that are kept and reported and thus info available to researchers • first protection against problems of reliability in the analysis of existing statistics is being aware that the problem may exist • e.g. when analyzing police reports: volume of overall business facing the police can affect handling of offenses, unreported crimes, prejudice towards certain people, etc. Sources of Existing Statistics • most valuable sources of data in Canada = Statistics Canada o Publish numerous analytical periodicals and series of reports such as Canadian Social Trends, Canadian Economic Observer, etc. • vast majority of governments have highly developed institutions for gathering statistics and most produce annual volumes reporting a wide range of information about their countries • government agencies at all levels publish countless data series • world statistics are available via United Nations Content Analysis • social research method appropriate for studying human communication such as books, magazines, websites, songs, poems or paintings • content analysis is well suited to the study of communications and to answer the classic questions of communications research – who says what to whom, why, how and what effect • sampling – cant observe directly what you want to observe • units of analysis – determining appropriate units of analysis, the individual units that we make descriptive and explanatory statements can be a complicated task • sample selection depends on the unit of analysis • subsample = select samples of subcategories for each individual unit of analysis o e.g. if writer’s are unit of analysis we must first select sample of writers from total population, select sample of books written by each writer and then select portions of the book for observation and coding • example on PAGE 297-99 • must be clear about unit of analysis before planning sampling strategy • define units of analysis, create sampling frame then use either random, systematic, stratified to sample • sampling techniques – any can be used Coding in Content Analysis • coding = process of transforming raw data into a standardized form that can be used for machine processing and analysis • in content analysis oral, written communications are coded/classified according to some conceptual framework e.g.TV shows may be coded as either violent or non-violent • manifest content = coding the visible, surface content of a communication, concrete terms determine how romantic a novel is by counting the number of times the word love appears • latent content = coding the underlying meaning of the communication e.g. reading a paragraph and determining how romantic it was not necessarily by how often kiss and love appear • latent – good for examining underlying meanings but comes at cost of reliability and specificity, even if you do all the coding, there is no guarantee that your definitions and standards will remain constant • best to use both latent and manifest • conceptualization and operationalization typically involve interaction between theoretical concerns and empirical observations – both inductive and deductive methods should be used • is testing theoretical prepositions, theories should suggest empirical indicators of concepts • if you begin with specific empirical observations you should attempt to derive general principles relating to them and the apply those principles to other empirical observations • note: operational definition of variable is composed of attributes include in it – attributes should be mutually exclusive and exhaustive • different levels of measurement may be used: nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio • if evaluating content analysis data quantitatively, coding operation must be amenable to data process – end product of coding must be numerical o manifest = frequency of certain words o latent = coding based on judgements e.g.1 = very liberal, 2 = moderately liberal, 3 = moderately conservative • record keeping must clearly distinguish between units of analysis and units of observation, especially if the two are different – initial coding must relate to initial coding • record the base from which the counting is done e.g. when telling how many times love appears in a novel compare with how many words there are in the overall novel • sometimes qualitative data analysis is appropriate negative case testing o begin with examination of data which may yield general hypothesis Analytic Induction: begins with observations, analytic since it goes o search data to find all cases that would contradict initial beyond description to find patterns and relationships among variables. hypothesis o revise hypothesis based on findings o risks = misclassifying observations in order to support an emerging hypothesis Strengths and Weaknesses of Content Analysis • greatest advantage – requires little time and money, as long as you have access to material to be coded you can undertake content analysis • easier to repeat a portion of study, correct errors if necessary than other research methods • allows for the study of processes occurring over a long period of time • seldom had effect on subject being studied • limited to the examination of recoded communications such as oral, written or graphic • may be issues of validity • concreteness of materials increases reliability – can recode to ensure coding is consistent Historical and Comparative Research • examination of societies or other social units over time in comparison with one another an can focus on small group or nation • some studies have examined historical progression of social forms from simple to complex such as Marx who examined economic systems progressing historically from primitive to feudal to capitalistic forms • not all historical studies in social sciences have evolutionary flavour – focus on cycles rather than linear progression • Example: 307-8 discussion of role of religion on development of capitalism in various strategies • There is no end of data available for historical research – historians may have already reported on what you want to examine, their analyses can give initial grounding on subject, starting point for more in depth research • Probably will go beyond other’s conclusions, examine raw data and draw your own conclusions • Organizations normally document themselves – if studying development of organization you can study its official documents, characters, policy statements, speeches by leaders, etc. • Government documents can also prove data needed for analysis • Remember you can’t trust accuracy of records whether official or unofficial, primary or secondary – protection lies in replication • Historical research – corroboration, when several sources point to the same set of facts your confidence in them can increase • Always be wary of bias of data sources Analytical Techniques • Researcher must be able to take on mentally the circumstances, views and feelings of those being studied so that researcher can interpret actions appropriately • Must find patterns among voluminous details describing subject matter of study • Ideal types = conceptual models composed of the essential characteristics of social phenomena • Historical and comparative researchers may attempt to replicate prior studies in new situations • Sometimes use time-series data to monitor changing conditions over time such as data on population, crime rates, unemployment and infant mortality rates • Many historical analysts combine methods in addressing research questions • Unobtrusive research methods can be used to gather and assess both qualitative and quantitative data *Main Points: PAGE 312-13 Chapter 11: Qualitative Field Research • Field research - appropriate for study of attitudes/behaviors understood within natural setting vs. artificial setting of experiment/survey, perfect for study of process over time Elements of social life appropriate for field research: • Practices - Behaviours like talking • Episodes - Variety of events such as divorce, crime, illness • Encounters - 2+ people meeting/interacting in immediate proximity to each other • Roles & Social types - analysis of positions people occupy and behaviours associated with those positions (occupations, family roles, ethnic roles) • Social and Personal relationships - behaviour appropriate to pairs or sets of roles (mother-son, friendships) • Groups and Cliques - Small groups such as sports teams, work groups • Organizations - Formal organization such as hospitals/schools • Settlements & Habitats - small-scale societies such as villages, ghettos, neighbourhoods • Subcultures & Lifestyles - People's adjustment to life in groups e.g.ruling class, urban underclass Methodological Terms • phenomenology = idea that reality is socially constructed, prominent in qualitative research and emphasizes attention to worldview of people being observed/interviewed • aim is to discover subjects experiences and how subjects make sense of them Ethnography and Participant Observation • ethnography/participant observation – report on social life that focuses on detailed and accurate description rather than explanation may also refer to data collected in natural setting while may also refer to naturalistic observations/holistic understandings of cultures/subcultures • naturalism – assumption that an objective social reality exists, can be observed and reported accurately • tradition ethnography – linked with anthropology, associated with travel to a foreign land, immerse self in different culture and report investigation in rich, descriptive manner providing readers with intimate feel of life as observed • participant linked with sociology • combine a variety of techniques for gathering data • terms refer multi-method modes of data gathering in natural setting, employed by researchers with differing orientations to qualitative social scientific puzzle solving Case Study • study where researcher focuses on single instance of social phenomenon like town, industry, community, person –advanced version can focus on more than one instance/case • case can also refer to study focusing on particular process/period • concerns what unit researcher will focus on, not how data will be gathered • can be used in both qualitative/quantitative research • can combine any number of methods to collect data – can gather data on single organization through use of self-administered questionnaire, interviews, etc. • purpose – focus on specificities of case providing rich, detailed data • greater time an energy focused on single case permits more intensive investigation • trade-off = more information on one case as opposed to less information on a range of instances • often used as preliminary to more elaborate study = exploratory • in explanatory cases researchers compare several case studies • term case study often used in a variety of ways – main characteristic is the limiting attention to a particular case of something • researcher focuses on single unit of a larger possible set, spending long periods of time becoming intimately familiar with details and nuances of their case Various Roles of Observer • observer can play a variety of roles • participant observer doesn’t mean participating in what is being studied but usually means they directly observed it • complete participant may be a genuine participant in case under study or may pretend to be a genuine participant (make people believe you are genuine participant) • Pretending raises ethical questions – is it ethical to deceive people? • Deceive with belief that research will be more valid, reliable and to prevent reactivity = when subjects know that they are being studied and thus and alter their behaviour from what it would normally be • Might expel researcher or modify their speech/behaviour to appear more respectable or social process might be radically transformed • If you’re complete observer might affect what they are studying – might affect social process under study e.g.if group asks you what they should do • Anything observer does/does not do will affect social process • Might instead fully participate but inform group that you are researcher o Downside – people being studied may shift attention to research project rather than focus on natural social processes thus making process no longer typical o Might come to identify too much with interests and viewpoints of subjects and go native, losing scientific detachment • Complete observer can without becoming part of social process – subjects under study don’t realize they are under study – must act appropriately o Less likely to develop appreciation for process under study o Observations maybe more sketchy and transitory • Fred Davis: extreme roles of observers = Martian, Convert o Martian – sent to another planet, feel separate from others in same way researchers feel degree of separation when observing cultures or social classes different from their own o Convert – delving deeper and deeper into phenomenon under study and risk going native o Different situations require different roles or researchers – no set guidelines, must use understanding of situation, own judgement • When studying a religious cult you can study group by joining it or pretending to join it o Truly joining it means accepting beliefs, attitudes and other points of view shared by real members o Avoid getting swept up in beliefs of group • Researchers today recognize benefits of immersing self in points of view under study to get ‘insider understanding’– won’t be able fully understand thoughts and actions of members unless you adopt their points of view as true • Adopting alien point of view can be difficult – might find it hard to tolerate certain views • Symbolic realism = need for social researchers to treat beliefs they study as worthy of respect rather than objects or ridicule • Danger = adopting points of view of subjects, abandoning objectivity in favour of adopting their views, lose possibility of seeing and understanding phenomenon within frames of reference available to your subjects • When appropriate can fully adopt beliefs of culture, later step outside of those beliefs and into social science viewpoints – with experience can hold simultaneously rather than switch back and forth • When deeply involved in lives of people under study you are likely to be moved by their personal problems/crises Frameworks for Qualitative Field Research • Frameworks = what research questions should be posed and how to solve them • Conventional science – implicit differences of power and status separating researcher from subjects experiments experimenter is in charge and tells subjects what to do • Researcher has more power, higher status, special knowledge thus power/status differences must be evaluated – early researchers saw themselves as superior to ‘primitive’societies in comparison to theirs and never questioned European culture as standpoint • Implicit assumptions about researchers superiority – steps now taken to reduce it Grounded Theory • Attempt to derive theory from analysis of patterns, themes and common categories discovered in observational data, inductive approach • Attempt to combine naturalist approach with concern for systematic set of procedures • Techniques and procedures for coding and processing data are heavily emphasized but qualified • 3 stages of coding (no clear boundaries between them) o Open coding = labelling of concepts and categories occurs o Axial coding = concepts/categories are refined, properties are identified o Selective coding = categories are integrated, relationships among a few categories become focus • Researcher must be creative – ask stimulating questions, make comparisons, extract an innovative, integrated, realistic scheme from mass of unorganized raw data • Coding procedures are analytical tools that a
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