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SOCB05 Week 8 Midterm Questions.docx

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Rania Salem

SOCB05 Fall 2012 Midterm Review Questions 1) For each of the following ways that surveys may be administered, list some key advantages and disadvantages. A) Self Administered  Time consuming B) Interview Survey  Time consuming C) Telephone: directory,  Some numbers remain anonymous  Over-representation: Higher class have multiple phone lines so they are over-represented  Under-representation: homeless people don’t have phone lines 2) Define the processes of conceptualization and operationalization. How are they different? Choose a concept, give an example of how it might be conceptualized, then illustrate how it might be operationalized.  Conceptualization = The process of formulating and clarifying a concept by specifying indicators that measure the absence or presence of the concept for the purpose of research.  E.g. Broh (2002) poses the hypothesis that students’ extracurricular activities increase social capital, which in turn enhances academic achievement.  Academic achievement = cognitive learning outcomes that are the products of school instruction  Extracurricular activities = school activities outside the set of courses offered at a school  Social capital = the ability to accrue benefits through membership in social networks  Operationalization = the development of specific research procedures that will result in empirical observations representing concepts in the real world. Figure out indicators E.g. student-teacher interaction outside class > through survey Q  More indicators, better chance at getting whole concept  Indicators: Reflection of concept 3) Define each of the characteristics of survey questions listed below. Indicate whether this characteristic is desirable or if it should be avoided. Be sure to also indicate whether this characteristic pertains to the survey question itself or to the responses to the survey question. A) Double-Barreled (pertains to the survey question)  Should be avoided  Use of “and”  Asking two questions in one worded question  E.g. do you like hockey and baking? B) Mutually Exclusive (pertains to responses)  Desirable  Answers different from each other, answer cannot be both at the sane time (e.g. either “male” or “female”) C) Exhaustive (pertains to responses)  Desirable  All dimensions covered 4) Define reliability and validity, both of which are criteria for good-quality measurements in social research. List the main methods used to ensure reliability. Also, list the main types of validity in social research.  Reliability: That quality of measurement method that suggests that the same data would have been collected each time in repeated observations of the same phenomenon. In the context of a survey, we would expect that the question “Did you attend religious services last week?” would have higher reliability than the question “About how many times have you attended religious services in your life?”  Methods: o Test-retest method = measure the same units on two separate occasions and calculate agreement o Split-half method = randomly divide the items measuring the concept and calculate agreement  Validity: A term describing a measure that accurately reflects the concept it is intended to mea- sure. For example, your IQ would seem a more valid measure of your intelligence than would the number of hours you spend in the library. Though the ultimate validity of a measure can never be proven, we may agree to its relative validity on the basis of face validity, criterion validity, content validity, construct validity, internal validation, and external validation.  Methods: o Face validity = the measure captures the concept based on common sense o Content validity = the measure represents all facets of a concept o Criterion-related validity = the measure relates to an external criterion o Construct validity = the measure accurately predicts other related phenomena in a theoretically meaningful way 5) What is the purpose of using either a scale or an index? What do they have in common? What is the difference between scales and indexes?  Index: A type of composite measures that summarizes and rank-orders several specific observations and represents some more general dimension. Contrasted with scale  Scale: A type of composite measure composed of several items that have a logical or empirical structure among them. Examples of scales include Bogardus social distance, Guttman, Likert, and Thurstone scales. Contrasted with index. 6) Under what circumstances is it possible to select elements that are representative of the population of interest? In other words, what is needed if you are to select a representative sample? What are the benefits of selecting a representative sample?  Probability Sampling – sampling based on a process of random selection that gives each case in the population an equal or known chance of being included in the sample  Representative sample – a sample that contains the same distribution of characteristics that exist in the population  Findings will be generalizable 7) For each of the non-probability sampling designs listed below, briefly describe the process of sampling. A) Purposive or Judgmental Sampling: a. Use judgment to select units that are representative or typical of the population B) Snowball Sampling: a. Collect data on a few members of the target population that are easily located b. Ask those cases to refer you to other members of the target population; and so forth C) Quota a. Construct a table describing the characteristics of the target population b. Estimate what proportion of the population falls into each cell of the table c. Set a quota of respondents for each cell so that their proportion of the total sample equals their proportion of the total population d. Interview respondents through convenience, snowballing, etc. 8) For each of the probability sampling designs listed below, briefly describe the process of sampling. A) Simple Random Sampling: a
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