May 5 (lecture 1).docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Stevan Knezevich

Lecture 1 May 5, 2010 *Hannah ardent – explanation for why philosophers tend to stay away from politics int heir philosophies (do not memorize the Greek terms, unless covered in class). * midterm – all mcqs Final exam – short answers n essay questions (not cumulative)  Theorists figure out theories as response to issues of their time (marx – capitalism, class, worker, etc.)  Sociology appeared as a scientific field in the early 1900’s 1910 (Durkheim – established the first department of sociology at some uni in france)  He wanted to unify the French educational system, attend the sam euni without difficulty cause they would have same previous knowledge. (a student from one town knew as much as a student from another town)  THEORY - Integrated set of concepts and statement about relationships between phenomena  concepts(every theory consists of concepts - family, class, education etc. categorize things together, linking similar things together in a concept;describe common characteristics all phenomena in diff places have) degree of social mobility has increased over the last 20 years (class status or socio economic status) EX: all concepts are phenomena. Every ones family is phenomena, but what they share that makes them all family is concept.  Phenomena  cause and affect. Education becomes the cause of downward social mobility (the relation between phenomena (something that exists, a concrete events or object that exists in reality, an occurrence  a perceived object (papers or an event (droppin the paper).  Cause and effect (explanation) VS mechanism (explication)  Cause & effect  statement about causes of a phenomena. discover causes, why it happens or why it exists  Mechanism  answers how exactly that happen sequence of events. What was the mechanism of that phenomena (the way in which the causes had influenced the situation so that the event happened in conclusion. (c) (this in between is the explication) (e)  Causes (parent income) (this is explanation)( education, social network, marriage ) Effect. Those factors are explication. ALL THESE ARE PHENOMENA – PARENTAL INCOME, SOCIAL MOBILITY, EDUCATION, SOCIAL NETWORK, MARRIAGE, EDUCATION. ETC.  Description just describes phenomena – what exists, what’s happening.  not a theory, doesnt say how or why things happening, only says WHAT is happening. EX Marriage increases risk of homicide for women and decreases it for men. 
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