- Grassy narrows : 1963 federal gov Indian affairs kenora, ONT relocation of Ojibwa from old reserve to
new big blow to the old community ways the indians/communities self destruct…. became suicidal,
alcoholics, abusive etc.
- Deviance of grassy narrows introduces the first several distinctly socio approaches to understanding
*Sociological Positivism – pathology of society:
- Idea of pathology existing on social level is characteristic of Social disorganization
perspective.(view dominated socio of deviance 1890s-1930s)
- developed later into interactionsit, social learning and control theories.
-*socio P emerged when thinkers from diff backgrounds began to look for regularities in
- motivated by historical changes leading to increased obvious concentrations of
deviance among ppl in diff social class and groups.
- Industrial revolution produced middle class, poor. Religion became important.
- predominant view: urban masses were ignorant, undisciplined, irreligious if touched by
radical economic beliefs = danger to society.
- ppl began to understand sorces of urban squalor and do something about them, these
> religious do-gooders who saw moral uplift of the lower class as a spiritual duty,
considered crime, slums infant mortality etc. as inadequate moral training.
> Humanitarian philanthropists from industrial mid class who felt
impulsive/unsystematic charity was ineffective, maintained poverty rather than relieved
it. Their Engineering was intended to produce more useful working class
>Journalists who produced descriptive accounts in articles and exposed sources of
corruption at political/economic level. Ready market existed for stories about the poor
> public health and welfare officials
> Social Reformers, such as john howard, Charles booth, Beatrice webb who studied
to improve it and marx who hoped to end it.
Emile Durkheim: Sociological positivism
- Social facts are explained by social facts, rejected any explanation of social problems
that relied on psychological and biological variables.
- Deviance is either natural to the social organism or its pathology of that organism. - Most deviance is natural and helps society to function effectively.
- Society evolves from simple to more complex forms.
- Earliest societies held the same beliefs and ideas =shared common conscience
- When rule is broken offends almost everyone punishment was severe to keep them in
place with the common conscience
- This was the state of mechanical solidarity
- Mechanical solidarity transforms into organic sol when population pressure leads to
complex divisions of labour. Diminishment of common conscience.
- Social change in his time created society charactized by anomie (lack of integration in
group) & egoism(lack of regulation by group)
Sociology in America: the Chicago school
Opened in 1892, centre for ideas about influence of rapid change on social order. Hull
house= site of practical sociologically informed activism.
Chicago school and social disorganized theory
- Rapid social change leads to breakdown of common values and regulation ic certain
parts of society allowing anomic forms of deviance eg, suicide mental illness to emerge
- Regard the following changes as particularly germane to social disorganization:
- Urbanization: transition from relatively simple rural socio order to complex crowded
- Migration: movement of ppl from closeknit homogeneous rural society into anonymous
- Immigration: movement of ppl with a wide variety of social backgrounds &customs
often euro into the American melting pot.
- Industrialization: transformation of employment patterns & development of industrial
- technological change: runaway change that outstrips adaption producing a gap in social
- Disorganization includes anything that when compared with the ideal of stable small
town life was negative or patholological.
Primary & secondary relations
- Theorist such as Charles Cooley emphasized importance of primary relations over
- Primary: informal face-to-face, personal interactions
- Secondary: formal, direct and less personally involving - The less integrated and regulated by involvement in personally meaningful
interdependent relationships more likely to engage in deviant behaviour.
The study of spatial and temporal relations among ppl & how they are affected by social and
economic competition for space and resources. Ethnic groups, occupational cultures of social
space as species seeking individual and group survival in competitive enviro.
Human ecology theory of urban dynamics
1. Invasion: intro of new groups or culture in to territory, may invade a district formely
dominated by another etc. 2. Segregation: separation of species 3. Natural areas: product of
unplanned processes these natural boundaries are rarely entirely consistent with official
administrative territorial units 4. Conflict: competition b/w groups over use of territory eg.
Gang warfare over street territory. 5. Dominance: strength of one group relative to others, 6.
Accommodation: process whereby diff species (groups/land) achieve nonconflictual
adjustment. Weaker adjust to dominance of others 7. Assimilation: complete absorption of one
group into way of life of another 8. Succession: takeover by a new group 9. Symbiosis:
interdependence among groups
Location: in geographical refers to position on a land surface, as ecological refers to the
distribution of ppl in social as well as geographical space eg. Criminal area = matter of
geographical location and partly interaction and networking.
Ecological fallacy: assumption that if high crime area has large # of immigrants, stuents etc then
these are the criminals
Ecological Mapping: detailed maps of city/district used to show where deviant activities and
social problems are concentrated.
Thrashers version of mapping : zone 1: businesses, commercial building, banks, few residents
and criminals live here, target places for crime, zone 2: transitional area, home to unskilled day
workers and immigrants zone 3: area settled by stable working class second generation of
immigrants, zone 4: suburban middle class, zone 5: exurbia commuter zone.
Ethnography: continual monitoring of events as unfold in natural setting, documented social
worlds and ways of life within city neighbourhoods through a combination of field work. Looked
at each group as if it were an urban tribe with unique with characteristics reflecting place in
social order. Life Documents: diaries and letters etc to reveal how ppl experienced transition to city life and
how ideas and behaviour changed with it. Life hisroty= autobiographies or interviews.
Social Disorganization theory in Canada: center of social disorganization theory and research
in Canada was montreals McGill uni.
Social disorganization to Deviant Tradition: Early subculture theory
End of 1930s shift from an emphasis on how disorganization permits deviance to occur to an
emphasis (subcultural theory) on how deviant traditions in a community contribute to the
maintenance of deviance in delinquency areas.
Appeared in thrashers study of 1313 Chicago gangs: impact on society of immigration,
urbanization, rationalization, social/geo mobility, industrialization brought about delinquency in
zones of transition.
1.Institutions weaken by social change, effective legitimate regulations disappear 2. Weakened
institutions in disorganized enviro do not work effectively not meeting basic needs result to
Disorganization theory in 5 directions: 1. Defining deviance up or down, 2. Continuation of
ecological and mapping concerns 3. Network approaches 4. Attempt to revive the idea of the
theory as a consequence of rapid change and disruption in communities. 5. Incorporated
variety of integrated theories
Defining Deviance Up or Down:
kai Eriksons wayward puritans (1996) puritan society experienced crime waves, puritans were
defining deviance up to meet needs for observable integration and regulation.
Defining deviant down: instead of raising the standards to produce higher crime rates agencies
of social control were choosing not to notice behaviour that usually is regulated and punished:
because by older standards more bad behaviour existed than would be good for society to
can see signs within the communities to where crime may happen, there is evidence that
blighted areas contribute disproportionately to a cities problem. Low rental housing attract
prostitutes, drug pushers etc.
Network Approaches: shares emphasis on urban forms and focuses on networks or
relationships. Looks at issues like breadth, depth and strength of local networks whether in
the context of a residential neighbourhood etc. Greenberg,Rohe,Williams