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Deviance final exam notes

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Denis Wall

Chapter 7 - Grassy narrows : 1963 federal gov Indian affairs kenora, ONT relocation of Ojibwa from old reserve to new big blow to the old community ways the indians/communities self destruct…. became suicidal, alcoholics, abusive etc. - Deviance of grassy narrows introduces the first several distinctly socio approaches to understanding deviance. *Sociological Positivism – pathology of society: - Idea of pathology existing on social level is characteristic of Social disorganization perspective.(view dominated socio of deviance 1890s-1930s) - developed later into interactionsit, social learning and control theories. -*socio P emerged when thinkers from diff backgrounds began to look for regularities in social life. - motivated by historical changes leading to increased obvious concentrations of deviance among ppl in diff social class and groups. - Industrial revolution produced middle class, poor. Religion became important. - predominant view: urban masses were ignorant, undisciplined, irreligious if touched by radical economic beliefs = danger to society. - ppl began to understand sorces of urban squalor and do something about them, these ppl were: > religious do-gooders who saw moral uplift of the lower class as a spiritual duty, considered crime, slums infant mortality etc. as inadequate moral training. > Humanitarian philanthropists from industrial mid class who felt impulsive/unsystematic charity was ineffective, maintained poverty rather than relieved it. Their Engineering was intended to produce more useful working class >Journalists who produced descriptive accounts in articles and exposed sources of corruption at political/economic level. Ready market existed for stories about the poor > public health and welfare officials > Social Reformers, such as john howard, Charles booth, Beatrice webb who studied to improve it and marx who hoped to end it. Emile Durkheim: Sociological positivism - Social facts are explained by social facts, rejected any explanation of social problems that relied on psychological and biological variables. - Deviance is either natural to the social organism or its pathology of that organism. - Most deviance is natural and helps society to function effectively. - Society evolves from simple to more complex forms. - Earliest societies held the same beliefs and ideas =shared common conscience - When rule is broken offends almost everyone punishment was severe to keep them in place with the common conscience - This was the state of mechanical solidarity - Mechanical solidarity transforms into organic sol when population pressure leads to complex divisions of labour. Diminishment of common conscience. - Social change in his time created society charactized by anomie (lack of integration in group) & egoism(lack of regulation by group) Sociology in America: the Chicago school Opened in 1892, centre for ideas about influence of rapid change on social order. Hull house= site of practical sociologically informed activism. Chicago school and social disorganized theory - Rapid social change leads to breakdown of common values and regulation ic certain parts of society allowing anomic forms of deviance eg, suicide mental illness to emerge - Regard the following changes as particularly germane to social disorganization: - Urbanization: transition from relatively simple rural socio order to complex crowded urban - Migration: movement of ppl from closeknit homogeneous rural society into anonymous heterogeneous urban - Immigration: movement of ppl with a wide variety of social backgrounds &customs often euro into the American melting pot. - Industrialization: transformation of employment patterns & development of industrial working class/underclass - technological change: runaway change that outstrips adaption producing a gap in social disorganization occurs. - Disorganization includes anything that when compared with the ideal of stable small town life was negative or patholological. Primary & secondary relations - Theorist such as Charles Cooley emphasized importance of primary relations over seconday - Primary: informal face-to-face, personal interactions - Secondary: formal, direct and less personally involving - The less integrated and regulated by involvement in personally meaningful interdependent relationships more likely to engage in deviant behaviour. - Human Ecology: The study of spatial and temporal relations among ppl & how they are affected by social and economic competition for space and resources. Ethnic groups, occupational cultures of social space as species seeking individual and group survival in competitive enviro. Human ecology theory of urban dynamics 1. Invasion: intro of new groups or culture in to territory, may invade a district formely dominated by another etc. 2. Segregation: separation of species 3. Natural areas: product of unplanned processes these natural boundaries are rarely entirely consistent with official administrative territorial units 4. Conflict: competition b/w groups over use of territory eg. Gang warfare over street territory. 5. Dominance: strength of one group relative to others, 6. Accommodation: process whereby diff species (groups/land) achieve nonconflictual adjustment. Weaker adjust to dominance of others 7. Assimilation: complete absorption of one group into way of life of another 8. Succession: takeover by a new group 9. Symbiosis: interdependence among groups Location: in geographical refers to position on a land surface, as ecological refers to the distribution of ppl in social as well as geographical space eg. Criminal area = matter of geographical location and partly interaction and networking. Ecological fallacy: assumption that if high crime area has large # of immigrants, stuents etc then these are the criminals Ecological Mapping: detailed maps of city/district used to show where deviant activities and social problems are concentrated. Thrashers version of mapping : zone 1: businesses, commercial building, banks, few residents and criminals live here, target places for crime, zone 2: transitional area, home to unskilled day workers and immigrants zone 3: area settled by stable working class second generation of immigrants, zone 4: suburban middle class, zone 5: exurbia commuter zone. Ethnography: continual monitoring of events as unfold in natural setting, documented social worlds and ways of life within city neighbourhoods through a combination of field work. Looked at each group as if it were an urban tribe with unique with characteristics reflecting place in social order. Life Documents: diaries and letters etc to reveal how ppl experienced transition to city life and how ideas and behaviour changed with it. Life hisroty= autobiographies or interviews. Social Disorganization theory in Canada: center of social disorganization theory and research in Canada was montreals McGill uni. Social disorganization to Deviant Tradition: Early subculture theory End of 1930s shift from an emphasis on how disorganization permits deviance to occur to an emphasis (subcultural theory) on how deviant traditions in a community contribute to the maintenance of deviance in delinquency areas. Appeared in thrashers study of 1313 Chicago gangs: impact on society of immigration, urbanization, rationalization, social/geo mobility, industrialization brought about delinquency in zones of transition. 1.Institutions weaken by social change, effective legitimate regulations disappear 2. Weakened institutions in disorganized enviro do not work effectively not meeting basic needs result to delinquent behaviour Disorganization theory in 5 directions: 1. Defining deviance up or down, 2. Continuation of ecological and mapping concerns 3. Network approaches 4. Attempt to revive the idea of the theory as a consequence of rapid change and disruption in communities. 5. Incorporated variety of integrated theories Defining Deviance Up or Down: kai Eriksons wayward puritans (1996) puritan society experienced crime waves, puritans were defining deviance up to meet needs for observable integration and regulation. Defining deviant down: instead of raising the standards to produce higher crime rates agencies of social control were choosing not to notice behaviour that usually is regulated and punished: because by older standards more bad behaviour existed than would be good for society to recognize Ecological Approaches can see signs within the communities to where crime may happen, there is evidence that blighted areas contribute disproportionately to a cities problem. Low rental housing attract prostitutes, drug pushers etc. Network Approaches: shares emphasis on urban forms and focuses on networks or relationships. Looks at issues like breadth, depth and strength of local networks whether in the context of a residential neighbourhood etc. Greenberg,Rohe,Williams
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