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SOCB51H3 (11)
Joe Hermer (11)
Midterm

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCB51H3
Professor
Joe Hermer

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Lecture 9
Gender is a powerful social construction
oOpposed to sex, status
oGender= male /female
oFrom the moment we're born, we're put into those categories
oConstant lifelong normative of gender, most norms are gender themselves
oBecause of large areas of expectations, ideals, customs of what male/females should
be
oNorms around gender, race and sex aren't compartmentalized, efforts of regulations
are networked together
oNorms about gender, large way about the bodies
oWhy is the body such a powerful sight gender, extensive about norms, express norms
Readily available, everyone has one and its just there
oWe can never escape our bodies, minds can but not bodies
oWe use our bodies to live and experience life
oMediate pain and gain pleasure
oThe body is the secret that the torture uses because he knows the person can never
escape it
oBodies are visible, they're an easy, visible conducive in which norms can be contested
oBodies are moral sights, colonized, acted upon by extra ordinary range of
expectations, how we self regulate ourselves on how our body should be like
oOur bodies are regulated by how we look, self regulation
oNorms are internalized
Bodies that are medicalized, pregnancy
oPregnancy up until recently, wasn't ashamed but a private manner
oWomen's body is hidden away
oNot taboo but private
oChanged significantly
Advances in gender equality
Maternity benefits
Technological innovation
Mass media
oWomen's pregnant bodies aren't to be ashamed of, but sexy and beautiful
oTrends with maternity wear, essentially reconfigured to not hide pregnancy but to
show it off
oA fashion accessory, pervasiveness of how the body can be a sight of norms and
regulation
oThe ways in which women's bodies are constantly being objectified as objects, subject
of different types of idealization, now= pregnancy as fashionable statement in the last 20
years
Gender norms
oBest way to talk about is by fashion, ideal appearance
oHow do ppl fashion themselves to look like a man/woman?
oHow do ppl appear to create qualities of masculinity?
oWhat used to be a clear mark as masculine and feminine is now blurring
oFashion is now a case of calibration
Fashion women
www.notesolution.com
2
oAppearance norms are present in high fashion, represents of ideal types of
masculinity and femininity
oWomen: most feminine body= thin, pale, fair skinned, hairless, blonde, child like
oWomen's bodies are broken down to parts, and each part has to be perfect, and if you
can't fit it then you can photo-shop
oMajority of the time is spent photo-shopping than the photo shoot
oAlmost all of the photos are shopped before published
oNot just women's bodies wrong, but extra ordinary of visual manipulation
oMost of us know that image is generally played with, they still have a certain power,
contradiction
oWhen looking at picture, not looking at something real
oIdeal of beauty norm, type of representation, ideally unrealistic
oModels have incredibly long necks, arms and legs
oIn 2006, two models, Anna Reston and Luisel Ramos were close to being supermodel
status but died from anorexia
oCaused an uproar on models, also case in 2006, skinny chic or heroin chic?
oTrend to use exceptionally skinny models, caused uproar on beauty norms
oResults: tried to introduce a basic body index to be a model, but fell through= didn't
happen
oMost photographers won't employ anyone under 16- only thing that came out of that
oElle (french) 2010- created marketing niche, curves ahead
oItalian vogue- curvy ppl photoshoots
oIdea being to represent bodies of real women
oCaused a real stir, not plus size, average body of women haven't been seen in
magazines before
oLeomie Anderson- beauty ideal is being white but she's black and she's top black
model
Said that fashion industry is racist, explained how briefs are put out for
modelling shots
Want a fairy looking, when they look for black girl- want mixed raced, tribal
prints, desert scene
They'll ask for historical ideals, fairy= white person
oFairy or take the face of a women, artist took title from poem
oEven in situations where they're more active or personality, attributed to masculine,
still depicted as dependent to the same body type
Men fashion
oTypically speaking, qualities man has: strong, aggressive, built-muscles, tough, in
control, macho, Marlboro man- 20th century man of masculinity
Doesn't have to be traditionally skinny
oUp until recently, fashion is double standard and hypocrite
oWomen expected to have unrealistic body types
oMen haven't, up until recently, doesn't matter how old, still a sign of power, men had
money, men is business, women don't
oStart to change in mid 1980, double standard men has enjoyed for so long started to
disintegrate
o1986 Levis jeans, depict guys shirt off doing things, guys pining away for girlfriend,
shirtless, young skinny
oNew type of commercial, men were used sexually like women's bodies
oSexualized and particularized
www.notesolution.com
3
oBefore then, men's fashion etc, men's never had shirt off unless for bathing suit
oType of precise body norms now apply to men
oMen didn't have to display themselves like they do now
oDisplay in which men's bodies have been feminized
oSevere norms that were applied to women are now applied to men about what it takes
to be a man
oDavid Beckham- athlete, macho, considered to be more beautiful than Victoria
For a super star athlete to dress as he does, display body, essentially be
beautiful as he was, to be like that 20 years ago was unseen, being a man didn't
mean that
oAnorexia amongst boys 20 years ago was unheard
oThe feminization of masculinity, what does it mean to be a man? For the longest time
the markers of mascu. Were apparent
oMasc and fem revolved around qualities, that in the last 20-25 years have been
disintegrating
oIn the 80's confusion of masc.
oMetrosexual- mesh of masc and fem qualities
Popular tv show- Frasier- fem of men, gentle, sensitive, took care of
appearance, cultural, but they were straight
Mistakenly seen as gay but actually straight
Start in mid 80's with cultural shift with men's bodies
oMen's bodies are presented ideally very similar to women
oDouble standard expected from women disappeared
oMen are now expected to attend to their bodies as women are expected to
o20 years ago, guys didn't have the type of vanity, gotten beaten up- be like that was a
marker of being gay, (buying nice colourful sweater)
oGrowth in men's cosmetics, Menaji cosmetics, v400 distinct man
Men's cosmetics business, excluding shaving is now worth 4.3 billion dollars
oThe same advertisement for having a youthful look, radical shift in repre. In
masculinity
oIt's not trivial, the core of it is the social, gender relations, power, domestic violence
oWhat does it mean to be a man today? Question easily answered 20 years ago
oAndre Pejic- 20 year old boy who is considered one of the most beautiful models in the
fashion show
oMixture of genderless figure, he does most female modelling, he has the most perfect
ideal women's body
oAndrogyny
Lecture 11
young women sexualized at early age, discipline body to unrealistic beauty norms
it's been expanded to include men now
androgyny, our gender status is completely constructed
transgendered people- off shoot of androgyny
two types of transgendered- MF: men to female, FM: female to men
in some cases male or female were considered to be a drag queen
could be intensely cosmetics, or medical intervention; breast augmentation etc
gender to sexuality- normal or abnormal forms of sex
sexuality is gender, gender is sexualized
sexuality is gendered, in terms of masculinity and femininity
www.notesolution.com

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Description
1 Lecture 9 Gender is a powerful social construction o Opposed to sex, status o Gender= male female o From the moment were born, were put into those categories o Constant lifelong normative of gender, most norms are gender themselves o Because of large areas of expectations, ideals, customs of what malefemales should be o Norms around gender, race and sex arent compartmentalized, efforts of regulations are networked together o Norms about gender, large way about the bodies o Why is the body such a powerful sight gender, extensive about norms, express norms Readily available, everyone has one and its just there o We can never escape our bodies, minds can but not bodies o We use our bodies to live and experience life o Mediate pain and gain pleasure o The body is the secret that the torture uses because he knows the person can never escape it o Bodies are visible, theyre an easy, visible conducive in which norms can be contested o Bodies are moral sights, colonized, acted upon by extra ordinary range of expectations, how we self regulate ourselves on how our body should be like o Our bodies are regulated by how we look, self regulation o Norms are internalized Bodies that are medicalized, pregnancy o Pregnancy up until recently, wasnt ashamed but a private manner o Womens body is hidden away o Not taboo but private o Changed significantly Advances in gender equality Maternity benefits Technological innovation Mass media o Womens pregnant bodies arent to be ashamed of, but sexy and beautiful o Trends with maternity wear, essentially reconfigured to not hide pregnancy but to show it off o A fashion accessory, pervasiveness of how the body can be a sight of norms and regulation o The ways in which womens bodies are constantly being objectified as objects, subject of different types of idealization, now= pregnancy as fashionable statement in the last 20 years Gender norms o Best way to talk about is by fashion, ideal appearance o How do ppl fashion themselves to look like a manwoman? o How do ppl appear to create qualities of masculinity? o What used to be a clear mark as masculine and feminine is now blurring o Fashion is now a case of calibration Fashion women www.notesolution.com
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