SOCC11H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Toronto Community Housing, Special Constable, Campus Police
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- 4-6 short answer questions
- Intro, chapter 1 you should know extremely well
- Defined order, community, idea of lateralization of policing, state and non-state policing
- 3 spheres of policing give scenario, explain
- Charter rights and freedoms – are security guards subjected to the charter of rights and freedoms? They are not. This is a very important
point in chapter 1. It makes relationship between individual and government, not individual-individual. This is important because TPA is not
subject to charter of rights.
- Trespassing in discussion - security officers make them less accountable whose behavior is governable.
- Ch 4
o Comparison between policing in 2 cities which we didn’t talk about but expected to have read and question will have you to “compare the
policing agents in 2 cities particularly when it comes to hybrid agents” each description involves different types and list what they are
- Ch 6 – Concluding chapter
o Small question – how Susan Ing appeals to the Peele definition of policing to make a point about policing (first 2 pages)
- Law displease and police subculture
- Parabolic piece on risk – read over generally and one minor question in everyday life
- Police investigate and enforce criminal law but they drive around for the most part. They have their presence known and visible and highly symbolic.
o A waste of resources?
o But the public wants to see the police visibility and reassurance.
- Paradox in police duty: This puts police in loose scenario, because they are expected to be able to do many things, but they don’t have the resources to
respond. expectation gap
o i.e. Stanley cup riot in Vancouver.
o The police were heavily criticized for to going in earlier and not breaking that up.
o But when they do, their actions will be posted on Internet and will be criticized for heavy-handed.
The Wire – This drug thing, this ain’t police work
- Police dealing with drug problem, and trying to get it approved.
- Lucid critique of drug and militarized mentality of the police in US.
- It is not always ambiguous what they do, but the police themselves are frustrated sometimes on what their job is about. The general climate of
uncertainty of what we think police should do and what they are doing also frustrates police. What do the police do – This is a question that shifts and
relative and contested.
Police mission statements
- They don’t really mention law enforcement.
- They can be for any corporation or business. Emphasis on trust, recognizing differences, integrity, etc.
- Directed to public AND the employees and how they are treated.
- More about Delivery of policing services.
o Force law
o Delivery policing services (some kind of business model)
- There is public image of policing that reflects this.
- Canada - police is tied to the idea of peacemaker and peace officers, (different from the US)
o 19th century - the public police was referred as government-regulated people. They didn’t exist before early 19th century. The idea of “police
officer” is new historically. They don’t call themselves police but polis.
o “Public Police” = social policy
o Police: tied to order and good government, to “peace” – referred by Criminal Code of Canada
Policing is political
- Law and government have political oversight of police activity.
- A hallmark of democracy that police power and services
- A product of current cultural, social, and economic conditions
- Shifted with “neo-liberalism” (Refashioning relationship between the individual and the state)
o Social contract between the individuals and the government.
o They have some kind of control over them and the government will provide some kind of security as a trade-off.
o Should government interfere less in our lives? Should we be more responsible for ourselves?
- Commodification of services and a faith in market forces
o i.e. Student loans are relatively new. They used to get grants before, and loans were rare 20 years ago. That used to be responsibility of
government for people to have access to education. The funding system change is neo-liberal. The government asks why should they be
responsible for the benefits that YOU will get from education? So they will give loans because education will get you the job. Free market idea. It
is not just practical thing – it is a change of consciousness.
o These are all primary theme in police. Police mission statement is very corporeal and managerial. They no longer mention the forces but they
talk about the services. Before they used to be more forceful but it is very recently that they changed their name to “services”.
Policing: Activity that is expressly designed/intended to establish/maintain/enforce a defined order within a community
- In 1970s - 80s, police forces have monopoly of policing in crime control.
o Forces law
o Triangle - Lateralization and flattening of policing itself
Defined Order: A set of explicit/implicit norms designed to regulate behaviours, conduct, relationships, or expression, and to provide for the establishment of
institutions and procedures.
- Formally: law
- Informally: customs and traditions
o The gap between the law and norms is vexing or volatile.
o i.e. ruling of sex trade industry, gay marriage and rights, marijuana legalization
- Mala prohibita Moral offences. Criminal because the law says so. Controversial. i.e. gambling, prostitution
- Mala Ense Criminal because they are bad in the nature. i.e. robbery and rape.
3 main inter-related spheres of policing:
1. Formal groups (state and non-state)
o State: includes police services, and government regulatory/administrative institutions with powers/jurisdictions
Police and peace
Municipal (by-law officer) no peace officer status
Provincial (park warden (provincial offence officers)) peace officer status
Federal (fisheries/immigration officer) peace officer status
Separation of police power
Not all are peace officers.
o Non-state private organizations: sectors connected to government by contract or administrative law
(Paid ty on top)
- There is a continuum/grey area between state and non-state
o Special constables
TTC –they are no longer SC. Generally speaking, yes, transit security has SP that allows them to enforce certain things like tress
property act, etc. Low level status police.
Campus police – they have full peace officer/police power. They enforce many things like security cameras, license act, traffic act,
municipal by-laws, smoking, etc. They also have power to act like peace officers according to the criminal code.
Animal welfare agencies – to enforce animal welfare.
Toronto Community Housing – policing on public housing programs
Canadian Food Inspection Agencies.
Ontario Regulation Competition Theorem – bureau set up to control financial transactions. They are both peace officers and have
full police power, and have specific types of legislation and duty
o Paid-duty officers
i.e. Highway Traffic Act mandates - contractors must hire paid-duty officers to oversee what is going on.
i.e. Entertainment license in Toronto, they need to hire so many peace officers for security.
o Peace officers hired for private or semi-private purposes. Controversial because power/authority used for profit
Hired because construction workers’ liability improved.
- Who should pay for paid-duty officers when they organize events, and where to draw the line?
o No straight legal dichotomy between the state and non-state.
o Almost all security screening even after 9/11 has heavy reliance on private security.
2. Social and economic roles
o Paid or unpaid – people have regulatory surveillance roles such as teachers, parents, waiters, or retail workers. If you work in a market you are
always watching people stealing for loss prevention. They have low-level retail workers doing security functions. If they hire security people
going around, it is bad for business. Increasingly, ordinary workers have regulatory or surveillance roles.
o SmartServe – waiters are responsible to surveillance alcohol consumption. It is for many bar owners and their liability reduction because bar
owners are blamed when there is a trouble. Just normal low level economic having non significant policing function
3. Citizens – responsibilised
o Self- regulating (policing by consent) through norms as being a “good citizen” become regulated for your own safety and security and in terms
of government watching others.
o Regulating others
o System that reduces child crime.
o The child had to be in immediate danger but Tory’s law changed that to be in potential danger.
o 30-40 years ago, the police didn’t take surveillance function.
o Tory’s law made the most wanted lists that have to do with war crimes.
- The former police lost the legitimacy and monopoly on policing - they simply cannot just do it themselves.
- Policing comes flattening down to become lateralized, becoming equalized with others, from policing to policing network
• Paid Security
paid state Municipal Provincial Federal
o So we have non-paid non-state social roles and citizens.
Hyperlaxis or Hyperlaw: governed by thousands of statues involved. Canadians are governed by 50,000 different statutes. It is a legal machinery that makes lives
governable. So this idea of hyperlaxis, the network of law/statute.
Community: Collectivity organized thru economic, political, or cultural activity - whether geographic, shared identity, or goals. Often real or imagined. Sometimes
overlap in all 3 areas and sometimes not.
- i.e. Tamil in Toronto - geographic and cultural and ethnic identity, and international/national self-identity
- i.e. Gay community
- i.e. Women imagined community that started Slut Walk
- Complex situation with policing and community policing
o Challenges to police because of public-private partnerships, but also because of they can’t culturally and technologically catching up with
what is going on.
- Policing has been lateralized and flatten down – typically policing involves institutions, legal power, authorities, etc. set of continuum in the mashing of
private and public interest.
The distinction between public and private space is illusive and deceptive.
- Because of the complicated nature of policing and legal character of space, it is no longer appropriate to say policing has to do with public law only. The
distinction between the public/private is no longer adequate to describe policing.
o Feminist in 80’s, i.e. domestic violence.
o Policing is interested in space because that is what policing is and policing always private/public space, or communal space/mass private
community, which has both of its characters.
- There is no space that is not regulated. Even places that seem to be unregulated are informally regulated.
o I.e. Organized crimes such as drug trade and sex economy
o They may not be regulated by formal laws but they have their own sets of laws.
Mass private community
- Mapped out different types of legal ownership and properties – you go across several properties that are differently owned. Most notably, there is wide
access of public.
o Eaton center – legally speaking, it is private space owned by someone. But there is common right of access where people can just come in.
- Distinction between private and public – no longer sustainable.
Mass communal space
- Space where there is a collective expectation of common access where people do not exercise a right to private property
o i.e. Roadways, city provincial and parks, public transportation, shopping malls
- Sometimes it is not collective sense. There is sometimes legal sense that people can legally come in.
o i.e. bus shelter – it is communal, designed for specific types of use. It is potentially made so that homeless people can stay there. That sitting
arrangement is made for people who are temporarily waiting for the bus.
Mass private property
- A dominant type of communal space
- Owned by individual/corporation, legally private space. Grant particular forms of common access and flow
- Policing and security is imbedded to manage flows of individuals where the transit of consumer is valued and encouraged. Transient consumer is valued
o i.e. University campus – private property where there is expectation of access but regulated as communal space.
o i.e. no smoking law – there are 2 signs
Municipal Toronto code, which University as private entity can enforce.
However there is an ashtray.
- Policing insecurities are embedded controversially that conforms to consumer use. It makes life governable.
o You cannot have securities in the mall so much because people spend money there.
o Smoking by the door in universities is not very enforced.
o Over-regulation is encountered by efforts to keep people happy and save money.
- i.e. St. Lawrence market – it looks completely public but it is still regulated as private space.
Trespass property act
- Occupier: owner/ security guards that enforce trespass property act.
- Offense: enters without permission, does not leave when he is told to
- Method of giving notice: verbal/writing, signs, marking system (red/yellow-prohibited except for certain activities)
- A person who is in physical possession of control of private premise…
• Paid Security
paid state Municipal Provincial Federal
Communal/ Mass Private