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Midterm

Term Test Study Guide

15 Pages
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCC26H3
Professor
John Hannigan

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Anti-Urban Sentiment and the Origins of Modern Urban Planning
This course started in 18th-19th century
Cities like Antigua were planned and follow a particular plan
Once you get out of Antigua, cities tend to be built in a way where there are narrow streets and wooden buildings
(chaotic)
Fire changed that systematic manner
Most of the big cities in the world at one time or another were impacted by devastating fires
Why were they impacted by fires? building material of choice was wood
Think about cities today and hurricanes, earthquakes, and tsunamis…those cities that are built of materials
that cant withstand earthquakes etc. are devastating
Yesterday was first anniversary of Haiti earthquake
One of the big problems physically in Haiti was most of those buildings were built not to withstand
earthquakes…they crumble
Other places in the world now that are based on Haitian experience now have building codes that require
buildings that are not earthquake proof that at least they can withstand anything but earthquakes
Most cities today dont build out of wood, they build out of concrete and other materials
Prior to 20th century, most buildings were constructed out of wood
When they caught fire, there is no such thing as fire wall and sprinkler system
Fire would go from one building to another
Chicago fire was one of the great fires talked about
Another important factor is these buildings were built in very close proximity to one another, streets were close,
so when fire started, it spread rapidly
As we go through some urban designs later on, one of the differences is they begin to build streets that rather
than being narrow, are wide and parking spaces are wider apart
If you travelled in Europe, many European cities have these old cities like Barcelona, Spain, and other places in
Europe that have preserved European city-like (wind like maze)
University Avenue is built in a beautiful approach large monumental buildings, nothing like streets and
neighbourhoods that existed in Canada
Paris is a good example where some grand avenues have the new designs
The way people heated their homes, cooked their meals, lit their homes and streetthe age before electricity and
natural gas, with lighting and candles
Candles can be pretty dangerous even today, candles can be easily knocked over or things like that
Fires started as a result of candles
The other thing that had to do is the way people heated their homes…now people have natural gas, but by in
large natural gas is pretty clean and safe
Back when people used other means of heating (burning wood/coal), they caught a lot of fires and chimney fires
www.notesolution.com
There was a lot more opportunity for fires to start in cities
This was not only reason why urban planning design came in, also because of social and political factors
You cant ignore the kind of issues of energy and fires and wooden buildings and things like that
Certainly, in some instances, it was a fire that gave inspirations to design
Big fire in London in 1660s, at that point, architects of all times (Christopher Wren) was to rebuild London
London has a lot of big landmarks St. Paul’s dome was designed by Wren because of fire
Were looking at the impact of industrial revolution and the rise of the industrial city
The 19th century saw the rise of industrialization various explanations
In a nutshell, basically had to do with new sources of energy up until the 19th century or beginning of 18th century
and particularly in 19th century
For the first time in history, they were able to utilize energy the only source of energy was putting a plow
behind an ox or you did it yourself
Starting in 18th and 19th century, they found ways of utilizing other energy sources
This began with water power, someone figured out that if you had a rapidly flowing river of waterfall etc, and
youre able to capture the power of the water falling down, then you can do all kinds of things initially to turn the
wheel, by turning the wheel, you can grind flour and other things
Hydro electric power in a way is non polluted, and is a development in Toronto, none more so than in Niagara
Falls have hydroelectric plants, take power of the falls and convert it into electricity
Even today, although not all power comes from water, it is still a significant source
As we look into other parts of Canada, the hydroelectric power comes from Georgina Bay; Quebec is leader of
hydroelectric power
The original breakthrough in history was being able to convert water into other forms of power
Later on as 19th century developed, then they were able to come up with other kinds of energy sources
Culminating and after 1850, then you get to the development of electric power generated not just by waterfalls
and rapids, the problem was they didnt know how to transmit that
Then they knew, which gave rise to industrial cities
One of the reasons had to do with transportation, that the 19th century is a time of tremendous breakthroughs
when it comes to transportation
Initially, canals are really important means of transporting goods, but the age of railroads too
First generation of streetcars which depended on electricity, which meant that cities can grow outwards
Original suburbs were called streetcar suburbs because they depended on streetcars
One thing that went from hand to hand was factories, they spread from France to Germany then to Canada later
on in 20th century that meant that you can produce mass goods and other useful energies and powerful
machines
By 1880s, it was becoming evident that were downsides for growth of cities and factories
www.notesolution.com
The downside was that the city that was developed at the time ended up being dark, polluted, containing all
kinds of substandard housing, all kinds of problems with poverty, disease, and particularly in poorer areas in
these cities, they were hell on earth
It was the notion that cities became terrible cities to live, which kickstarted the movement to design better cities
that has sunlight and werent crowded and dangerous and unhealthy
As we go through urban utopias, there are a lot of motivators to try to make the city a better place to live
because it was such a terrible place to live at the time
Peter Hall entitles the Chapter 2 the city of dreadful night one way you can read that title is that some of
the industrial cities in 19th century were so polluted that the sun rarely penetrated in the slum areas, it was
always night time because pollution was hanging so heavily that there is minimal difference between day and
night
Some examples in 20th century theres a city in Romania or Czheckloslovakia, it was dark every time
So Hall entitles the city of dreadful night so part of the goal of urban planners was to draw up a better city, one
that wasnt crowded and polluted and not the city of dreadful night
Theres another aspect to this too, and that has to do with sewage sewage and sanitation are extremely
important when it comes to designing a city
If you have a city that has really poor sanitation, thats when you need to design a new one
Europeans didnt have sewage treatment plants, they threw them out the window onto the streets
One of the worst things in addition to factories and mines was sanitation
One of the goals was to bring in ways of treating waste and animal waste
One of the breakthroughs in cities was to try to design sanitation systems
Another real flashpoint is housing poor people lived in tenements multi storey buildings, terrible places to
live
They were boiling in summer time, cold in winter, people were jammed in there, truly awful places to live
As well see, what kick started the urban reform in 19th century had to do with these tenement buildings
There are thousands of buildings out there, and landlords are not doing anything about things like cockroaches,
rats
The other thing had to do with overcrowding these tenements were hugely overcrowded, you have multiple
people overcrowded and living in a room no privacy, unhealthy, so overcrowding was a problem
These tenements give rise to do something about it and to have reform
In industrial cities in Canada, many problems were similar in nature (Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal) as London
J.S. Woodsworth a study of the problems and civic pathology written in 1911
oJ.S. Woodsworth later became the first leader of political party called the CCF = modern day NDP party
oDocuments in this book many similar kinds of situations in Canadian cities overcrowding, poverty, poor
sanitation
oE.g. started by saying you think Manchester is bad? Theres nothing that compares with housing in Toronto
(housing in Toronto is even worse)
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Anti-Urban Sentiment and the Origins of Modern Urban Planning This course started in 18 -19 century Cities like Antigua were planned and follow a particular plan Once you get out of Antigua, cities tend to be built in a way where there are narrow streets and wooden buildings (chaotic) Fire changed that systematic manner Most of the big cities in the world at one time or another were impacted by devastating fires Why were they impacted by fires? building material of choice was wood Think about cities today and hurricanes, earthquakes, and tsunamisthose cities that are built of materials that cant withstand earthquakes etc. are devastating Yesterday was first anniversary of Haiti earthquake One of the big problems physically in Haiti was most of those buildings were built not to withstand earthquakesthey crumble Other places in the world now that are based on Haitian experience now have building codes that require buildings that are not earthquake proof that at least they can withstand anything but earthquakes Most cities today dont build out of wood, they build out of concrete and other materials Prior to 20 century, most buildings were constructed out of wood When they caught fire, there is no such thing as fire wall and sprinkler system Fire would go from one building to another Chicago fire was one of the great fires talked about Another important factor is these buildings were built in very close proximity to one another, streets were close, so when fire started, it spread rapidly As we go through some urban designs later on, one of the differences is they begin to build streets that rather than being narrow, are wide and parking spaces are wider apart If you travelled in Europe, many European cities have these old cities like Barcelona, Spain, and other places in Europe that have preserved European city-like (wind like maze) University Avenue is built in a beautiful approach large monumental buildings, nothing like streets and neighbourhoods that existed in Canada Paris is a good example where some grand avenues have the new designs The way people heated their homes, cooked their meals, lit their homes and streetthe age before electricity and natural gas, with lighting and candles Candles can be pretty dangerous even today, candles can be easily knocked over or things like that Fires started as a result of candles The other thing that had to do is the way people heated their homesnow people have natural gas, but by in large natural gas is pretty clean and safe Back when people used other means of heating (burning woodcoal), they caught a lot of fires and chimney fires www.notesolution.com There was a lot more opportunity for fires to start in cities This was not only reason why urban planning design came in, also because of social and political factors You cant ignore the kind of issues of energy and fires and wooden buildings and things like that Certainly, in some instances, it was a fire that gave inspirations to design Big fire in London in 1660s, at that point, architects of all times (Christopher Wren) was to rebuild London London has a lot of big landmarks St. Pauls dome was designed by Wren because of fire Were looking at the impact of industrial revolution and the rise of the industrial city The 19 century saw the rise of industrialization various explanations th th In a nutshell, basically had to do with new sources of energy up until the 19 century or beginning of 18 century and particularly in 19 century For the first time in history, they were able to utilize energy the only source of energy was putting a plow behind an ox or you did it yourself Starting in 18 and 19 century, they found ways of utilizing other energy sources This began with water power, someone figured out that if you had a rapidly flowing river of waterfall etc, and youre able to capture the power of the water falling down, then you can do all kinds of things initially to turn the wheel, by turning the wheel, you can grind flour and other things Hydro electric power in a way is non polluted, and is a development in Toronto, none more so than in Niagara Falls have hydroelectric plants, take power of the falls and convert it into electricity Even today, although not all power comes from water, it is still a significant source As we look into other parts of Canada, the hydroelectric power comes from Georgina Bay; Quebec is leader of hydroelectric power The original breakthrough in history was being able to convert water into other forms of power Later on as 19 century developed, then they were able to come up with other kinds of energy sources Culminating and after 1850, then you get to the development of electric power generated not just by waterfalls and rapids, the problem was they didnt know how to transmit that Then they knew, which gave rise to industrial cities One of the reasons had to do with transportation, that the 19 century is a time of tremendous breakthroughs when it comes to transportation Initially, canals are really important means of transporting goods, but the age of railroads too First generation of streetcars which depended on electricity, which meant that cities can grow outwards Original suburbs were called streetcar suburbs because they depended on streetcars One thing that went from hand to hand was factories, they spread from France to Germany then to Canada later on in 20 century that meant that you can produce mass goods and other useful energies and powerful machines By 1880s, it was becoming evident that were downsides for growth of cities and factories www.notesolution.com
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