SOCC38H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Knitting
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SOCC38 GENDER AND EDUCATION MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE PG.1
BELIEVING IS SEEING
-Definition: Where we selectively “see” aspects of social reality that tells us a truth that we
prefer to believe, such as the belief in categorical sex difference.
-Significance: People often misinterpret other’s sex through their physical appearance and
-Example: Sexism in classrooms are not explicitly seen unless pointed out
CHILLY CLIMATE (Sandler)
-Definition: (Chilly Classroom Climate). Chilly climate reflects the subtle ways in which women
are treated differently in class. Classrooms reflect the strengths, weaknesses and biases of our
society. Behaviours are often part and parcel of our daily behaviour—they are seen as
‘comfortable’ and ‘normal’. In the classroom, it is women who get less recognition.
-Significance: Men get more feedback, criticism, and coaching. Women would get asked
factual questions, and men get asked more open-ended questions. Since we ascribe more
quality and status to men, they also get more attention. Because men get more
attention/coaching, when they answer questions they are more confident. Women are in a
stance where if they answer questions, it is a tentative reply.
-Example: Because men get more attention, when they answer questions it is straightforward
and the answer is very affirmative. Whereas, when women answer questions they end their
sentences in questions, like they are not too sure if their answers are correct or not.
DEVALUATION OF THE FEMININE (Evans)
-Definition: Men are often viewed either consciously or unconsciously as the more valued
gender, the more important gender. Therefore, females/femininity is seen as something not
-Significance: Men who show feminine traits (example: crying) are seen as week and usually
labeled with femininity traits. Boys at young ages who cry are usually shunned from groups.
The devaluation of the feminine puts females below males and sees masculinity as the
-Example: The label of ‘sissy’ is given to boys who avoid tough aggressive play and those who
exhibit weakness through affection of tenderness, basically those who show a lot of
stereotypical feminine traits. The label of sissy is a manifestation of the devaluation of feminine
traits that are seen as negative compared to masculine traits.
-Definition: Doing gender means to create differences between how men and women. These
differences as not natural, psychological and biological. Doing gender is look at in 5 ways. (1)
Gender is a routine accomplishment embedded in everyday interaction. (2) Doing gender is an
idea that makes gender seem natural. (3) Doing gender is not seen as a property of the
individual, but is an emergent feature of social situations. (4)There are many different
resources for doing gender. (5). Gender is a powerful ideological device.
-Significance: ‘Doing Gender’ gives us a new way when we think about gender, a new
approach to conceptualizing gender.
-Example: ‘Doing’ Gender for females requires them to take on ‘feminine’ roles, and for males it
requires them to take on ‘masculine’ roles. In the video that was shown in class, ‘You Can’t Be
a Princess,’ there is a lesson that girls can’t be Spiderman for Halloween and boys can’t be
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SOCC38 GENDER AND EDUCATION MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE PG.2
Princesses. In accordance with ‘Doing Gender’, girls should be Princesses for Halloween and
boys should be Spiderman.
EMPHASIZED FEMININITY (Messner, Kimmel)
-Definition: Characterized by girls’ and women’s’ embodiments of oppressive conceptions of
feminine beauty that symbolize and reify a thoroughly disempowered stance in relation to men
-Significance: Emphasized femininity causes females to pay more attention to their body. At a
young age, little girls wear tights to preschool and as they play, they need to always fix their
tights causing them to start paying attention to themselves, as they grow older due to societies’
view of how females should be, they pay attention to their beauty. Emphasized femininity
causes the self-esteem of girls to lower, as they get older.
-Example: Feminine beauty is seen in media, for example: plastic surgery, makeup, and
GENDER DIFFERENCES AS ‘DECEPTIVE DISTINCTIONS’
-Definition: What we really think of as gender differences are actually social differences.
Nature vs. Nurture. Explains how both genders are different and gender domination. Men and
women are different because we are taught to be different. From the moment of birth, males
and females are treated differently. Gradually we acquire traits, behaviours and attitudes that
our culture defines as ‘masculine’ or ‘feminine’. We are not necessarily born different, we just
become different through the process of socialization.
-Significance: Domination is the outcome of the different cultural valuing of men’s and
women’s experiences. The process of socialization is a process of making males and females
different from each other.
-Example: In schools, women enroll in courses like parenting, knitting, cooking, whereas men
enroll in engineering, math and science courses
GENDERED TRANSGRESSION ZONE
-Definition: Gender transgression zone (GTZ) dictate what behaviours are appropriate for boys
and girls, in addition to behaviours appropriate for both genders to display. Boys take up more
space in the GTZ sphere as they control more resources and space (playing in big fields). Girls
take up less space as their games usually requires smaller spaces (example: monkey bars,
clapping games). In relation to the different amount of space that each gender takes up, the
GTZ extends more into the boys realm compared to the girls realm.
-Significance: GTZ dictates what behaviours are appropriate for boys and girls, and those that
are appropriate for both genders. There are fewer sanctions for girls for showing boy features
and there is also more room for them to enter the boy’s sphere, compared to boys entering the
girl’s sphere. GTZ allows for the patrolling of what happens, dictates what is masculine,
feminine and gender neutral.
-Example: In the GTZ, boys who cry are labeled as outcasts. Crying is dictated as a ‘feminine’
trait. In the GTZ, girls who enter the GTZ because of the ability to play sports is not labeled as
an outcast, but is usually supported by other girls. Girls who inadvertently enter the GTZ is not
shunned away, but protected by girls too.
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