• 5-8 short answer questions
1. Readings: Goode: chap 1 to page 38
2. chap 2 to page 73
3. Chap 3 all of it!
4. Locher:ALL of it!
Content: Half of Q in general terms:
1. Definition collective behaviour in terms of this SUEF: 2 part of Q. Give a scenario and
ask if the scenario is collective behaviour or not!And whether is has a high content of
collective behaviour. Go through the 4 areas of collective behaviour and say whether it is
relative to it. On the scale between Normal Behaviour and Collective Behaviour. You are
talking about the grey area.
◦ Social Movement: organized efforts by a substantial # of ppl to change, or to resist
change, in some major aspect of aspects of society.
◦ Collective Behaviour: relatively spontaneous, unstructured, extra institutional,
behaviour of a fairly large number of individuals. (by Goode). Violates the norms of
mainstream society. often compared to normal behaviour on the opposite side of the
1. Spontaneous: behaviour has no structure, it is chaos, such as a car accident
and a bunch of ppl getting out of their cars on the highway. The spontaneity
part of it erupts into parts of everyday life.
3. Extra-institutional: means that behaviour of this type deviates from the
established, normative, institutionalized patterns of everyday life.
4. Fairly large number of ppl: it is not individuals acting.Alarge # of ppl
acting with and in relation to one another.
▪ Collective: not the behaviour of individuals acting on their own; it is the behaviour
of individuals acting with and in relation to one anther.
• Differences between conventional behaviour and collective behaviour is a matter of degree
– CB is increasingly becoming a grey area
• most behaviour is not normal behaviour or collective behaviour, a lot of everyday behaviour
falls in a grey area in between the 2 spectrums.
• This grey area can tell us things about social, political, media things. This is particularly true
, a lot of idea about collective behaviour is written due to the development of technology, e-
mail, social media platforms, which essentially have changed ppl's perception of space and
time. This is one of the effects of this type of technology.
◦ ex. Grocery store a person on their phone taking to someone else and completely
ignoring the social situation/environment they are in.
◦ ex. ppl being connected via texting on cell-phones. This has changed our consciousness
• Similarities between social movements and collective behaviour:
◦ Dynamic: reflect or help to generate social change
◦ Extra-institutional: both violate mainstream society's established norms, institutions,
and traditional values.
◦ Collective: engaged in by interactions with others, group creations.Always the product
of actions, reactions and interactions with and in the midst of other ppl.
• Differences: ◦ Duration of Time Span: collective behaviour tends to be relatively transitory and short-
lived , while social movements are usually more enduring.
◦ Degree of Organization: collective behaviour is unorganized and unstructured, whereas
social movements are relatively structured and organize. Collective behaviour is
leaderless, social movements tend to have leaders and active followers.
◦ Degree of Spontaneity vs. Planning: collective behaviour is more spontaneous, while the
dynamism of social movements tends to be planned.
◦ Relationship to Social Order: both are unconventional. But collective behaviour stands a
bit outside the social order, but rarely challenges it directly, social movements tend to
directly challenge the social order. Social movements exist because their members
believe that something is wrong with the way things are.
◦ Intentionality of Participants: participation in collective behaviour are relatively non-
purposive and expressive, more concerned with the expression of emotion or with
enacting certain behaviour than with the attainment of a goal. Contrasted with
participation in social movements tend to be intentional, instrumental, and purposeful in
seeking to attain a goal.
2. Describe the public and the crowds.And the distinction. The 4 different types of crowds.
2Ndly explain how the distinction have been blurred and crowds don't have to rely on
physical proximity anymore. ex. Cyber-bullying.As you go down the list of 4
◦ Public: geographically scattered and diffuse and connected only by a common interest.
Individuals can/always do belong to several publics. Often referred to as masses of
publics: defines as a large and heterogeneous # of ppl . Ex, a fad/ fashion trend
nationwide. Behaviour is parallel not collective.
◦ Crowd: is compact and whose members are physically together in the same place at the
same time. Individuals can belong to only one crowd at a time.
▪ Casual Crowd: loosely structured, made up of ppl who just happen to be in the
same place at the same time. United solely by physical proximity, not by a common
goal/interest. There are normative, institutionalizes rules for behaviour in casual and
conventional crowds that ppl follow.
▪ Conventional Crowd: come together for a common purpose -such as to attend a
lecture, hear a concert, or watch a movie of a play. Being part of the crowd is
secondary.Normatively governed; their members observe the rules that decree what
is, and what is not, appropriate in such settings.
▪ Expressive Crowd: gathered for a specific purpose, but they differ from
conventional crowds in that their main purpose is belonging to the crowd itself.
Crowd activity for its members is an end in itself. The audience also wants to be a
member of the crowd, and participate in crowd behaviour – scream, shout, cheer,
▪ Acting Crowd: engage in overt behaviour, aside from simply milling around.
Revolutions, lynchings, violent demonstrations, and mass looting. Referred to as
mobs. DOES something. Crowds are more than the sum of their parts but not all
crowd behaviour is collective behaviour.
• Distinction between PUBLIC and CROWD: mass/public is an immense potential audience
that stands ready to react to msgs, events, or stimuli. It is also very scattered and physically
disconnected. The interest its members have in certain issues is what binds it together into a
collectivity, however geographically separated. Cannot flourish w/o technological requisites
such as mass media. Crowds possess immediacy, publics have range, while crowds have density and compactness, publics are scattered and diffuse. What happens in a crowd is
instantly communicated to its members, what happens in publics is communicated only in a
slower more indirect fashion. Unlike crowds: a specific individual may be a member of a #
of different and overlapping publics simultaneously.With technology public and crowd
are creating a new hybrid form of collective behaviour
• technology has changed the above rubric, you don't have to be in the physical sense present
to be part of a crowd through social media. Through instantaneous communication and the
public can create crowds that are casual, conventional, expressive, acting crowd. These
crowds can now be applied to publics. The classical idea of the crowd has passed physical
boundaries. This is a relatively new , in the last 7 years.
• technology has extended the possibility for agency and action.
• Sammy Tatim Shooting: the circumstances of the shooting were 20 police officerndon the
scene. 8 shots, and than tazzered which killed him and he was charged w/ 2 degree murder.
Was that a form collective behaviour by the classical definition?
◦ How spontaneous was it? How structured was it? How institutional was it?
◦ After the shooting, there was a Toronto Rally which drew hundreds, this is considered
collective behaviour. Because it was spontaneous, unstructured and not institutionalized.
• The ability of crowds, the most powerful form it was expressed was the outrage that it
caused over the media, this was a a mass acting in a virtual crowd.
3. General Q on concepts. Know the names and brief descriptions of the 5 concepts. Which
concepts are still valid and useful?Aspecific theory, and ask a specific Q? sum it up in 2-3
sentences. Summary is in the end of the chapter.
◦ The crowd :Gustave Lebon, members of such a crowd lose their individuality and
become transformed into homogeneous entity, subject to the contagion of the other
members of the crowd. Individually, they may be educated and intelligent as the
members of a crowd, become stupid, impulsive, incapacity to reason and hypnotized.
Can also be heroic but the unreflective acts have been stimulated by strong leaders and
mob contagion, not the merits of the case in question. 3 factors that facilitate true
▪ 1. the emergence of capitalism, the destruction of feudalism, and the entry of the
popular classes into political life
▪ 2. the persuasion of crowd leaders
▪ 3. occasions that draw large number of ppl together.
◦ Contagion or Transformation theory: Argues that under certain circumstances, the
presence of other generates collective excitements and therefor episodes of collective
behaviour, usually of an emotional, irrational and often violent nature. Collectivity
mechanisms such as imitation, suggestion and emotional contagion operate in addition
to anonymity. In a crowd ppl are transformed from the way they are in their ordinary,
everyday lives, much like the good Dr. Jykl was transformed into the evil Mr. Hyde.
▪ 6 Problems:
▪ 1. focuses on unusual extreme cases regarded as destructive and irrational like riots.
▪ 2. never bothers to look at what the members of crowds were actually doing,
assumption about crowd unity or uniformity.Acting crowd actually show much
▪ 3. and 4. assumption that ppl in crowds are more suggestible because they are more
anonymous. Crowd members, like publics, tend to be in gatherings with other whom
they know and whos opinions