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Midterm

SOCC03 Midterm Review.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCC03H3
Professor
Joe Hermer

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SOCC03 Collective Behavior Midterm Review Outline: - 5-8 short answer questions - Okay to write in first person for both short answers and in final essay Readings required: - Goode: o Chapter 1 (to page 38) o Chapter 2 (to page 73) o Chapter 3 Questions: Define Collective Behavior (SUFE). Equate whether a scenario is considered CB. Include details of conduct, grey area. Collective Behavior: relatively spontaneous, unstructured, extra-institutional, extra-normative, behavior of a fairly large number of individuals (Goode, 17) - Collective behavior is the relationship between self and others, and how that relationship is mediated and manifested, experienced, and regulated through a series of social, economic, culture, and technological forces. It is not just a binder between 1-2 people or a crowd with collective behavior; it is much more complicated. - Often compared to normal behavior that is structured, institutionalized, and conventional, organized, planned, predictable, enduring, stable, normative and familiar. Compared with conventional, everyday life, collective behavior is less inhibited and more spontaneous, more changeable, and less structured, shorter-lived and less stale. o Collective: behavior of individuals acting with and in relation to one another – directly influenced and in the concrete presence of others; basis of group bond. – relative to individual/parallel behavior o Extrainstitutional: deviates from the established, normative, institutionalized patterns of everyday life. Different from society’s mainstream structures and institutions. - Collective behavior is relatively structured, but not wholly so. – Somewhat different from, but not completely discontinuous with conventional institutional behavior. CB may be urged by new norms that arose because traditional practices don’t seem to work anymore to some people, having complex and different relations with different norms and values. CB may have arisen because traditional norms are in conflict with certain desired values in a specific situation. Operates in situations in which there are no or few, adequate, clear-cut definitions as to what to do from mainstream culture or where those definitions fail to determine participants’ behavior – Instable, unpatterned structures – “Maverick” side of human life - Grey Area: Despite this definition, most behavior is not strictly normal behavior unless in straightforward examples. Most behavior is not classic collective behavior. A great deal of everyday behavior falls in a grey area. This grey area can tell us things, things about socio-economic forces, media, technology, etc. - This is particularly true, and classic ideas of collective behavior are being rewritten, because of technology – development within last 5-7 years. With change, people’s conception of space and time change. Technological interaction has challenged and changed some theories about collective behavior SOCC03 Collective Behavior Midterm Review o i.e. to be not in the social space you physically in (i.e. talking on the phone while in line at supermarket) Second question: Describe the public and crowd, and its distinctions. This includes 4 different types of crowds. How the distinction has been blurred where crowds no longer have to rely on physical proximity anymore. (Cyber crowds, acting of both) Classical Definition (Tarde) The Public is spatially dispersed collectivities; a large and heterogeneous number of people who are geographically scattered and whose attention is focused on a particular stimulus, issue or phenomenon (i.e. public/mass connected by TV). The Crowd: compact; members are in close physical proximity at the same time. - Public (masses): a modern creation and exists only by virtue of the mass media. The crowd has existed wherever and whenever humans have congregated in substantial numbers. The physical proximity of the members of a crowd is what makes it a unique setting - A given individual can exist in several publics simultaneously; one can belong to only one crowd at a time. - Gustave LeBon: Modern age is the age of crowds. Tarde argues against it. Crowds: Four Types - Not all crowd behavior is collective behavior. - “Illusion of unanimity” – not all the same, but can be classified according to the behavior or orientation of the majority of their members - Casual: loosely structured, made up of people who just happen to be in the same place at the same time. o United by physical proximity and not necessarily by common goals/interests o Little else in common except their physical location o Most circumstances, not acting out a form of collective behavior. There are normative, institutionalized rules for behavior in casual and conventional crowds and most people follow them - Conventional: come together for a common, specific purpose. o i.e. Lecture, concert, etc. o Normatively governed, rules observed. o Can become unconventional – i.e. When a prof does not show up o To the extent that crowds are conventional, they are not enacting collective behavior - Expressive: gathered for a specific purpose, but their main purpose is belonging to the crowd itself. SOCC03 Collective Behavior Midterm Review o Like Conventional, except it goes further with common purpose, spatial proximity, but also being part of the crowd with an emotional connection/sense of participation is important – i.e. rock concert/political realm. Crowd activity is an end in itself. o Assemble for the purpose of expressing an emotion, belief or sentiment through the crowd and its behavior o Blurry boundaries between the two. Can progress from one to the other, i.e. sports events - Acting: engage in overt behavior, aside from simply milling around. o i.e. Revolutions, lynching, violent demonstrations and mass lootings o Physical activity – often portrayed in a negative sense with a mob idea. In fact it can be both o The act may have been planned in advanced, or emerged in the crowd setting or in the milling process  Bit of both o Some people act and some do not – do not act with a single mind. Publics - Mass and public as diffused collectivities. - Mass traditionally defined as a number of anonymous, isolated, heterogeneous individuals who have little contact with one another and who react to a given stimulus in a parallel, not a collective fashion. Public had some contact with each other - Mass as an isolated atomistic world does not exist; behaviors of mass are spatially dispersed but generally takes place in clusters or collectivities - Public is a kind of spiritual collectivity, a dispersal of individuals who are physically separated and whose cohesion is entirely mental - Mass media generate masses and publics, large audiences who simultaneously receive the same message, some of whom will react in similar ways. - Public is not confined to site/location; they can also be conventional and not CB (i.e. elections) Public vs. Crowds While crowds possess immediacy, density and compactness, masses have range, scattered and diffused. - Collective behavior today distinguishes between the two. Important since processes that take place in crowds do not take place in masses, and vice versa. With technology, public and the crowd are creating a hybrid form of communication. o You don’t have to be in a physical world to be active o The public and mass can now act as a crowd through social media technologies. Facebook campaigns, social medial campaign, etc.) and the public can create all types of crowds. So technology has expanded the possibility for agency and possibility for action to people who are not just physically connected. SOCC03 Collective Behavior Midterm Review o While crowds are instantaneous through face-to-face, publics in the same mode would have a much slower effect without mass communication - The definitions of what crowds are you can also apply to “publics.” - This has happened in the last 7-8 years - i.e. Sammy Yamin – We go into grey area. Is it collective behavior by classic definition? o Resulted in immediate online and physical rallies. The rallies are considered collected behavior by the classic definition – semi-structured, non-normative (attitudes of people towards the event), spontaneous o The definition of crowd is new – people no longer need to be in close proximity. The crowd that arose from this event was on social media sites, Facebook pages, twitter and instagram commentaries, etc. – a virtual crowd. Flash mobs - Started 7-8 years ago - Cited as a form of collective behavior, very unstructured, very spontaneous. Structure is there, but very loose. Uninstitutional. - The key was involving a number of people who could at a moment’s notice can come to a physical location and be a crowd - Another overlapping of crowd and public. - How can things that are considered classically CB be increasingly institutionalized and conventional? Are flash mobs institutionalized? It has progressed from CB, into grey area, now increasingly into normal behavior – lost its original features. Has a positive tone, rarely violent, etc. Third Question: General question of the 5 concepts – Name concept and state which concepts are still valid and useful. Summarize in 2-3 sentences, use the back of the text Gustave Lebon - First author who put forth an analysis of phenomena – “ The Crowd” (1895) – precursor to field of CB - Late 19 century French aristocrat, undemocratic, who thought crowds were mindless violent mobs made with lowest rung of society. - Members of crowds lose their individuality and become a homogenous entity – subject to the contagion of the other members – stupidity, impulsive, barbarism, credulity, intolerance, etc. – hypnotized - Also give them courage through impulsivity, can also be noble and productive - He was not taken seriously. It was informed by his political views, radically anti-democratic and racist/sexists. - No real explanation of crowd behavior. States certain conditions are required, but fails to adequately explain. - Single-factor theory. Ignores all other socio-economic influences SOCC03 Collective Behavior Midterm Review
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