- 4-6 short answer questions
- Intro, chapter 1 you should know extremely well
- Defined order, community, idea of lateralization of policing, state and non-state policing
- 3 spheres of policing give scenario, explain
- Charter rights and freedoms are security guards subjected to the charter of rights and freedoms? They are not. This is a very important
point in chapter 1. It makes relationship between individual and government, not individual-individual. This is important because TPA is not
subject to charter of rights.
- Trespassing in discussion - security officers make them less accountable whose behavior is governable.
- Ch 4
o Comparison between policing in 2 cities which we didnt talk about but expected to have read and question will have you to compare the
policing agents in 2 cities particularly when it comes to hybrid agents each description involves different types and list what they are
- Ch 6 Concluding chapter
o Small question how Susan Ing appeals to the Peele definition of policing to make a point about policing (first 2 pages)
- Law displease and police subculture
- Parabolic piece on risk read over generally and one minor question in everyday life
- Police investigate and enforce criminal law but they drive around for the most part. They have their presence known and visible and highly symbolic.
o A waste of resources?
o But the public wants to see the police visibility and reassurance.
- Paradox in police duty: This puts police in loose scenario, because they are expected to be able to do many things, but they dont have the resources to
respond. expectation gap
o i.e. Stanley cup riot in Vancouver.
o The police were heavily criticized for to going in earlier and not breaking that up.
o But when they do, their actions will be posted on Internet and will be criticized for heavy-handed.
The Wire This drug thing, this aint police work
- Police dealing with drug problem, and trying to get it approved.
- Lucid critique of drug and militarized mentality of the police in US.
- It is not always ambiguous what they do, but the police themselves are frustrated sometimes on what their job is about. The general climate of
uncertainty of what we think police should do and what they are doing also frustrates police. What do the police do This is a question that shifts and
relative and contested.
Police mission statements
- They dont really mention law enforcement.
- They can be for any corporation orbusiness. Emphasis on trust, recognizing differences, integrity, etc.
- Directed to public AND the employees and how they are treated.
- More about Delivery of policing services.
o Force law
o Delivery policing services (somekind of business model)
- There is public image of policing that reflects this.
- Canada - pthice is tied to the idea of peacemaker and peace officers, (different from the US) th
o 19 century - the public police was referred as government-regulated people. They didnt exist before early 19 century. The idea of police
officer is new historically. They dont call themselves police but polis.
o Public Police = social policy
o Police: tied to order and good government, to peace referred by Criminal Code of Canada
Policing is political
- Law and government have political oversight of police activity.
- A hallmark of democracy that police power and services
- A product of current cultural, social, and economic conditions
- Shifted with neo-liberalism (Refashioning relationship between the individual and the state)
o Social contract between the individuals and the government.
o They have some kind of control over them and the government will provide some kind of security as a trade-off.
o Should government interfere less in our lives? Should we be more responsible for ourselves?
- Commodification of services and a faith in market forces
o i.e. Student loans are relatively new. They used to get grants before, and loans were rare 20 years ago. That used to be responsibility of
government for people to have access to education. The funding system change is neo-liberal. The government asks why should they be
responsible for the benefits that YOU will get from education? So they will give loans because education will get you the job. Free market idea. It
is not just practical thing it is a change of consciousness.
o These are all primary theme in police. Police mission statement is very corporeal and managerial. They no longer mention the forces but they
talk about the services. Before theyused to be more forceful but it is very recently that they changed their name to services.
Policing: Activity that is expresslydesigned/intended to establish/maintain/enforce a defined order within a community
- In 1970s - 80s, police forces have monopoly of policing in crime control.
o Forces law
o Triangle - Lateralization and flattening of policing itself
Defined Order: A set of explicit/implicit norms designed to regulate behaviours, conduct, relationships, orexpression, and to provide for the establishment of
institutions and procedures.
- Formally: law
- Informally: customs and traditions
o The gap between the law and norms is vexing or volatile.
o i.e. ruling of sex trade industry, gaymarriage and rights, marijuana legalization - Mala prohibita Moral offences. Criminal because the law says so. Controversial. i.e. gambling, prostitution
- Mala Ense Criminal because they are bad in the nature. i.e. robbery and rape.
3 main inter-related spheres of policing:
1. Formal groups (state and non-state)
o State: includes police services, and government regulatory/administrative institutions with powers/jurisdictions
Police and peace
Municipal (by-law officer) no peace officer status
Provincial (park warden (provincial offence officers)) peace officer status
Federal (fisheries/immigration officer) peace officer status
Separation of police power
Not all are peace officers.
o Non-state private organizations: sectors connected to government by contract or administrative law
paid state Municipal Provincial Federal
5 (Paid ty on top)
- There is a continuum/grey area between state and non-state
o Special constables
TTC they are no longer SC. Generally speaking, yes, transit security has SP that allows them to enforce certain things like tress
property act, etc. Low level status police.
Campus police they have full peace officer/police power. They enforce many things like security cameras, license act, traffic act,
municipal by-laws, smoking, etc. They also have power to act like peace officers according to the criminal code.
Animal welfare agencies to enforce animal welfare.
Toronto Community Housing policing on public housing programs
Canadian Food Inspection Agencies.
Ontario Regulation Competition Theorem bureau set up to control financial transactions. They are both peace officers and have
full police power, and have specific types of legislation and duty
o Paid-duty officers
i.e. Highway Traffic Act mandates -contractors must hire paid-duty officers to oversee what is going on.
i.e. Entertainment license in Toronto, they need to hire so many peace officers for security.
o Peace officers hired for private or semi-private purposes. Controversial because power/authority used for profit
Hired because construction workers liability improved.
- Who should pay for paid-duty officers when they organize events, and where to draw the line?
o No straight legal dichotomy between the state and non-state.
o Almost all security screening even after 9/11 has heavy reliance on private security.
2. Social and economic roles
o Paid or unpaid people