Patricia Hill Collins – Six Dimensions
1. Naturalized Hierarchy – white as parents black as children, men > women, follow rules of “national”
2. Home Place – public (men) and private (women) reinforces roles, division of space by race, nation =
3. Blood Ties – women responsible to maintain pure bloodlines (no pre-martial sex), no mixing of races
4. Membership Privileges – diff responsibilities for men (financial) women (domestic) reward women who
stay in marriage, distribution of rights/responsibilities based on race
5. Inheritance/Family Wage – working class men entitled to “family wage” status of women/kids derived
from men’s, passing down from father to son to keep out others, home ownership = national id and
6. Family Planning – women’s bodies produces pop. for national fam, eugenics, control who reproduces
Aboriginal family forms depended on modes of economic survival and the nature of contact with other groups:
Sedentary Aboriginal peoples: Great Lakes & coastal BC regions. Nomadic Aboriginal peoples: Prairies & the
Plains Cree Families: Nomadic hunting society, patriarchal, patrilineal families – Men: hunters, warriors,
leaders. Women reared children, prepared food, made clothing and tools.
Iroquois Families: Sedentary agricultural society, matrilineal, matrilocal families – all members responsible for
child rearing. Men: hunters, fishers, warriors. Women: worked in fields, chose and advised male leaders.
Patrilineal kinship: tracing kinship through male line. Matrilineal kinship: tracing kinship through female
line. Patrilocal residence: residing in the household of husband’s.Matrilocal residence: residing in household
of wife’s. Patriarchy: social system of male domination. Matriarchy: social system of female domination.
Family refers to an intimate domestic group made up of people related to one another through
blood/sexual/legal ties. Joint extended family: grandparents, children, and grandchildren. Stem extended
family: siblings and their nuclears.
Society (Macro) Families (Meso) Individiuals (Micro)
Structural Functionalist Theory – The family performs important functions in society (particularly individual
child socialization), mothers take expressive role/fathers take instrumental role, society’s cultural and
organizational contexts influence family life, systems within society are at equilibrium with one another –
families should be the same, focus on equilibrium makes explanation of social change and inequalities difficult.
Social Exchange Theory – Individuals act rationally to maximize benefits/minimize costs – no altruism, family
members’ resources determine power in their relationships, family conflict arise when exchanges between
members imbalanced, families persist because benefits outweigh costs.
Rational Choice Theory – Human/cultural/social capital transferred from parents to children and affects future
outcomes, families acquire resources and opportunities based on social networks and communities, social
closure occurs when parents and communities communicate consistent rather than conflicting norms to
children, effective communities form when neighbours take collective responsibility for child well-being. Symbolic Interactionism Theory – Individual’s sense of self shaped through interaction with others
(particularly fam), reference groups provide children with role models that guide their enactment of roles and
develop self-concept, family members experience role strain if their role expectations conflict or role definitions
are weak, families create their own symbolic world through myths and rituals.
Interactional-Transactional Theory – Child seen as active (rather than passive) social actor, child feedback
influences parents’ actions – bidirectional relationship, child coproduces environment that shapes their
development, the environment enhances, limits and constrains family member’s actions.
Developmental/Life Course Theory – Family events follow trajectory/sequence – individual roles develop and
change over time, Timing of transitions from one family event/role to the next can affect individual’s time for
developmental tasks, Individuals’ experience of a life stage affects family member’s development, Families are
long-term social groups with history of transactions with society – they affect and are affected by larger social
forces such as tech, economy.
Social Constructionism Theory – Social constructs are phenomena that seem objectively real or natural but
are actually social or cultural creations, Childhood is a social construct with a changing definition, Gender
role/motherhood/fatherhood/sexual division of labour