•using people's skull size u determine intelligence, undertanding of
deficiencies to different cultures, way of presenting of representing.
•discourse is not a ismple topic: is assuems taht life is messy. there is no
singular discourses, tehre are coutnless discourses working at the same
time, discourses are not metanarratives. discourse is based on power it
challangese it and its embedded in it. who beneifts from certain
•for stuart hall: provide a language to talk about a particular thing, when
statement about a topic are made within a particular topic, it makes u
talk about taht topic in a certain way, it limits other wyas in which topic
can be constructed
•discourse prodices knowledge, a way o funderstanding the world.
discourses validate knowledge
•discourse is the practise of producing meaning. meanign produce is using
power. discourse is one of the systems through which knoweldge is
•a power relations. those taht produce the discourse also have the power to
make it true.
•in sociology u read about ideology. discourse is like ideology. but to stuart
hall ideolgy speaks about true and false statement and somehow there
been a scientifc validity to what's true and false
•but foucalult questions that truth can be subjected. science can u used to
prrove something. for example statistics skewed to prove somethign
•discourse tell us how to engage with certain topics
•politics of naming: discourive knowledge. freedom fighter vs a terroritst:
what they depend on is who is doing the naming
•we would understand that understanding as true, and that true has
consequences on people
•certain description even if they appear false to us, can be made ture
because ppl belive them to be true, so their actions have consequences
•hall talks about oreitnatism. the use of the "other." orient is made as the
object of knowledge; classical knoweldge, biblical knowledge..these
sources were used to get knowedge. these played a part in creating the other. it create ways in which the west intereacted with the other.
discourse said who would populate the orient:
•these "thruts" affected practices. discourses taht benefited the west..who
writed histories, who benefits, how is it constructed, for whom is it
constructed, who is outside this construction
•all knowledge constructed in the west was "legtimate."
•regime of truth: popular discoursse that are takend for granted. been
around for so long that we just think of them as true. their
representations are widely accepted.
•disourse shapes perception and practise, operating through power and
withing power construction. the ways its constructed, ppl are affected by
•how is a problem framed? what kind of things we understand through it?
•hall only engages in the first point of contac. discourse shapes thew way
we undersatnd the refugee. who is a welfare queen? constructs who is u
understoof as teh citizen. not just anyone who has a citizenship card, but
who is constructed within it and whose outside of it
•it creats understnaing of who is understood as a good student or bad
student. Which are intellgient bodies and which are not
•discourse has consequeces. in terms of housing there are discourses about
who will pay rent. workplace: how are certain bodies perceived as hard
•diff social sphered are overlapping. discourse is always done with relation
to something. hall talks about macroscale distinction: he talks about w
refrence to the west. but it also happens on a smaller level: it happens
realted to dominated group. who is suppose to be part of a family. is
nuclear famioly idea? how schooling happens?
•becasue we are people ans we dont take oppression very well.
counternarratives: construction of discourses taht challenge the
dominant discourse. eg instead of lloking at the drop out rates u look at
the pushout rates, how are certain ppl kicked out. another way to look at
•shcooling is a process of assimiliation where ppl are thought to strip off
their culture, those taht resist taht practise, they are subtracted from
the schooling process•Balibar reading:
•white researcher looked at skulls and said that white skulls were bigger
than average, they never really said how they mesured these, they didnt
talk about the density, they didnt talk about how they pakced the seeds
•balibar is not talking about biology, religion or anything, he's talking about
the socia scieces and cognitive psychology and saying taht the new
racism doesnt except the idea tha there are biological differences.
instead teh difficiences are found within the cultural norms. E.g samuel
dehuntin: we should believe anything we see written even if its form
•accrding to balibar racism is present in racism, culture, representations
•his writting is so dense: who ar the audience, maybe we are not the
•withing your own writting, who you are writting for, what are the reasons
why we write int hat particular style
•expanation: to understand the quote: removal or protective treatemet,
stigmata of othernessL boldiy marks of those constructed as others. for
the need for the removal or protective treatment of those marked as
others. intellectual understandings..
•other is constructed as a danger to the social order, balibar takes this to
the next step. construction of social body: naturalized thourgh the social
scieces, another justification of racist treatmnet of others. we are so
advanced asn teh otehr is so primitive that there is no way to co-exist,
the only way to maintain this modern society is to exlcude those taht
•academic racism: he critiques theories that show racism as natural, the
evidence they speak about is the ability of different cultures to get
along. to aggression to be a natural consequence, tehre is a regime of
truth that applies here too. the idea taht we fear the unknown.
• ppl cry out that canda is under attack, browning of the nation**
•essentialing cultures as being antithetical to each other**** they cannot
•violence is a legtimized response, legitamizign mob mentalitiy, this
happeninsg at the broder level, which brodies endagner the social order,
which bodies are inherently violenmnt, who cannot be trsuted, how