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University of Toronto Scarborough
Francisco Villegas

January 16 , 2011  Research is not innocent, the idea of objectivity is a myth. There is no such thing as subjectivity. Objectivity is impossible to divorce myself from myself. No matter how much I try to distant myself from what I am doing r gng to have a bit of myself  The way I try to create understanding of things will have a bit of myself  Producing knowledge and knowledge that is neutral  Steven castle  Most of the ways in which we understand migration is from industrialization. There are more researchers on migration than any other timein history  The vast moajority of these prjects are using these same outdated theories  It becomes hard to look at variance of disabilities  Context of migration  He says a key prob in the theroirizxing of migration is the tendency to see migration as a quite distinct process. This is realted to see things just on their own  U need to ask how did pp get from point a to point b  How did this affect pplz ability  Term!  We have reached an era when ppl can move from point a to point b, so we should stop talking about it  Northern nations: with a Canadian passport u can go anywhere in the world. But with a passport from a southern nation u don’t benefit from the level of trave, u don’t get the benefit of the doubt  Even if ur a well educated citizen, u always have to prove that ur just visiting and that ur not going to stay  Migration is a highly classes phenomena  Most ppl have the economic resouces or the political rights to migrate freely  Control and limited by state  Controlling when and how ppl migrate from one pace to the next. This is y castle is saying why there is a need for people to move from one place to the other ppl  Migratants r not the poorest and the poorest. Poor ppl acnt afford to migrate. Migration is expensive. The need to maintain migration as a study  Need to conceptualize and operationalize these skills  Mobility is understood across the borders of the highly skilled. Migration is seen as the skills of the lower people  2 types of people, if ur really educated or ur really rich  Whose understood as being low skill: farmers, plumbers, trades,  But we have to be critical about what these words mean. Is an accountant more important than a farmer who brings food to your table  Reception: these skilling of particular individuals, the ways under which people are deskilled In CA there are particular colleges for certain skills: that says yes this person canpractise., in order for the person to practise the schools they went to must have a paradigm of Canadian school. Who receives acreditention. The northern nations tend to receive that accreditation  This is why we have doctors as butchers in Toronto  We began to see how race begans to play a factor: who is required to prove their knowledge, who is not  According to castle, mobility and migration as constructs;  Keep in mind who they are talking about when they talk about migration  What does it mean to be conceptualize as a problem. As the problem.  Sedentary bias: bias that happens deep within migration theories. We know these threats ideas about abuse, who would be abusing the syte,. Who is understood as a violent subject, who will be dependant on the state. Sedentary bias whitihgn mimmigration system, policies.  The idea that migratants can come for a certain time, work in candain fields and then go back  In the USA: brasau (Spanish) program. The arms program, always with the notion that there were always unlimited number of arma availbale. Politicians talk about it as a humatnitarian process, we r helping ppl etc and they say they can use that money from here and then help their country. That what u hear from the politicians  But what’s inhere in this program is how it makes use of a replacable of workers, not everybody can come over, in order to do u have to be a certain age, have a certain amount of kids. So u have ppl who will want ot go back. There r no health standars, no minimum wage, no housing facility; ur living with ur employer 24/7. If u have a problem with ur employer u get deported, u don’t get future contracts. If u get injure u get sent back. That’s how the problem actually works. Grass root: in Toronto. Film: El Contrato (check it out)  This understating of migration as a problem, if ur on the political right, ur ideas r to frther restrict immigration policies. Left wing trying to understand their problems and also limitng  Theoretical bias: theroising of migration should take into account the contextual differences that lead to people’s migration, it is macro, micro, indiivudal, how does one person decide to migrate. What are the complextitise about migrating  Whether there should be a single theory ofm gyration, can we really understand why migration happens  Diff therories of y ppl migrate  Research approach is more additice rather than integrative **  Its just tries to add on, we should tend to integrate them into a braoder more coherent theory  Disconnect between subfields  Methodological nationalism: higily critical of this work, because a lot of this ispolicies. Something that is going to be short term, something that;ll look good on print. This centers the anaylsis on the nation, enterily on the nation rather than ont eh migraants themselves, rather than the factors that effect people’s reasons  Who is centered in the analysis, am I doing research on what are the reasons for ppl Receiving country bias: most research occurs within or in relation to northern countries  Attempt towards assimilation; diversity as a danger!! Diversity as a hinderence!  Restriction on how ppl r allowed to live in this context, what people can wear, what people can’t wear, looking for social beneifts  Something problematic in castle’s piece: now we’re hearing more voices, but prof thinks there’s a problem. We can’t assume that just because that someone is soutrhern, doesn’t mean that they can speak on southern perspective, we have to think about diff subjectivities, we have to ask who is this research written for? What story is told, particular questions that’ll be asked if research if funded by national companies  METANARRATIVE: theories believed to hold the answers to everything; theories that can answer everything; these become quite problematic because many of the times, the don’t began to look at realities of live, they don’t look at reasons, or reasoning in y ppl migrate  U need to create a middle aged theory: one theory can’t control them all (like the ring haha)  If our theories don’t match that’s good its better conversation. Don’t want to be in this theoretical box under which all theories must arise  Castle is looking as migration thru a social lens, social transformation  How does labout shortages in one place, effect the movement of people  Centering the analysis not on the nation, but on the ppl who are living it, if u create this context, u might be creating more ethicial research. He gives 2 scenarios in the end nd  2 article:  How does is feel to be a problem, how does it feel to be a problem when they are talking about crime rates, schooling outcomes, housing situations and a over satuariotn of ppl? How do we know who we are talking about?  What does it mean to be understood as a prob? What does that to the ind? How does it feel to the community.  How does it feel when they are talking in code language, how does it feel to know that you are not part of the nationality? How does it feel to know that you are no them. How does it feel to know. That everyone has an idea of what Canadian looks like  U grow up to be a citizen, feeling that u r a citizen.  No mat
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