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Term Test Study Guide

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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Hannigan

Anti-Urban Sentiment and the Origins of Modern Urban Planning This course started in 18 -19 century Cities like Antigua were planned and follow a particular plan Once you get out of Antigua, cities tend to be built in a way where there are narrow streets and wooden buildings (chaotic) Fire changed that systematic manner Most of the big cities in the world at one time or another were impacted by devastating fires Why were they impacted by fires? building material of choice was wood Think about cities today and hurricanes, earthquakes, and tsunamisthose cities that are built of materials that cant withstand earthquakes etc. are devastating Yesterday was first anniversary of Haiti earthquake One of the big problems physically in Haiti was most of those buildings were built not to withstand earthquakesthey crumble Other places in the world now that are based on Haitian experience now have building codes that require buildings that are not earthquake proof that at least they can withstand anything but earthquakes Most cities today dont build out of wood, they build out of concrete and other materials Prior to 20 century, most buildings were constructed out of wood When they caught fire, there is no such thing as fire wall and sprinkler system Fire would go from one building to another Chicago fire was one of the great fires talked about Another important factor is these buildings were built in very close proximity to one another, streets were close, so when fire started, it spread rapidly As we go through some urban designs later on, one of the differences is they begin to build streets that rather than being narrow, are wide and parking spaces are wider apart If you travelled in Europe, many European cities have these old cities like Barcelona, Spain, and other places in Europe that have preserved European city-like (wind like maze) University Avenue is built in a beautiful approach large monumental buildings, nothing like streets and neighbourhoods that existed in Canada Paris is a good example where some grand avenues have the new designs The way people heated their homes, cooked their meals, lit their homes and streetthe age before electricity and natural gas, with lighting and candles Candles can be pretty dangerous even today, candles can be easily knocked over or things like that Fires started as a result of candles The other thing that had to do is the way people heated their homesnow people have natural gas, but by in large natural gas is pretty clean and safe Back when people used other means of heating (burning woodcoal), they caught a lot of fires and chimney fires There was a lot more opportunity for fires to start in cities This was not only reason why urban planning design came in, also because of social and political factors You cant ignore the kind of issues of energy and fires and wooden buildings and things like that Certainly, in some instances, it was a fire that gave inspirations to design Big fire in London in 1660s, at that point, architects of all times (Christopher Wren) was to rebuild London London has a lot of big landmarks St. Pauls dome was designed by Wren because of fire Were looking at the impact of industrial revolution and the rise of the industrial city The 19 century saw the rise of industrialization various explanations th th In a nutshell, basically had to do with new sources of energy up until the 19 century or beginning of 18 century and particularly in 19 century For the first time in history, they were able to utilize energy the only source of energy was putting a plow behind an ox or you did it yourself Starting in 18 and 19 century, they found ways of utilizing other energy sources This began with water power, someone figured out that if you had a rapidly flowing river of waterfall etc, and youre able to capture the power of the water falling down, then you can do all kinds of things initially to turn the wheel, by turning the wheel, you can grind flour and other things Hydro electric power in a way is non polluted, and is a development in Toronto, none more so than in Niagara Falls have hydroelectric plants, take power of the falls and convert it into electricity Even today, although not all power comes from water, it is still a significant source As we look into other parts of Canada, the hydroelectric power comes from Georgina Bay; Quebec is leader of hydroelectric power The original breakthrough in history was being able to convert water into other forms of power Later on as 19 century developed, then they were able to come up with other kinds of energy sources Culminating and after 1850, then you get to the development of electric power generated not just by waterfalls and rapids, the problem was they didnt know how to transmit that Then they knew, which gave rise to industrial cities One of the reasons had to do with transportation, that the 19 century is a time of tremendous breakthroughs when it comes to transportation Initially, canals are really important means of transporting goods, but the age of railroads too First generation of streetcars which depended on electricity, which meant that cities can grow outwards Original suburbs were called streetcar suburbs because they depended on streetcars One thing that went from hand to hand was factories, they spread from France to Germany then to Canada later on in 20 century that meant that you can produce mass goods and other useful energies and powerful machines By 1880s, it was becoming evident that were downsides for growth of cities and factories
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