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Sociology

SOCC31H3

Shirin Montazer

Fall

Description

CH.1
The stages of social research
1. research qs
2. hypothesis
3. method
4. collect data
5. analyze data
- Experiment; a type of research where the researcher manipulates one
or more independent variables.
- Experimental also known as a treatment group; the group that is
manipulated
- Control group; the group is not manipulated
- Participant observation; research where the researcher participates in
the daily life of study.
- Secondary analysis; use data that was collected by other researchers
- Qualitative data; a set of observation where any single observation is a
word or code that represents a class or category (use a small N, open
ended interviews)
- Quantitative data; a set of observation where a single observation is a
number that represents an amount or count (use large N)
- Variable; characteristics that differ from one individual to the other
- Hypothesis; a statement of relationship between 2 or more variables
- Dependent variable; the presumed outcome or effect resulting from
some treatment or exposure.
- Independent variable; presumed cause or influence affecting the
dependent variable.
Level of measurement
- nominal; involves naming or labelling not in order
- ordinal; involves the ordering of categories
- interval; ordering and exact distance ($, degrees, yrs of education)
- ratio level; same as interval but includes an absolute or zero
point( age, hours worked)
Discrete variable; separate and distinct specific values (gender, religion, #
of dependents)
Continuous variable; infinite range of possible values (weight, age,
income)
2 functions of stats; inferential and descriptive
Ch.2
Frequency distribution
2 popular methods:
- Proportion; number of cases compared to the total size of
distribution
P= f/n - Percentage; the frequency per 100 cases
%= (100) f/n
- ordinal and interval data must be in a sequence order in a frequency
table
- class intervals must be mutually exclusive. Ex; 1-5, 6-10 NOT =>1-5,
5-10
- whole numbers preferable to decimals
- Steps of constructing frequency distribution
8. specify the number of class intervals
9. The largest data- the smallest data/ number of classes= class
width (w=l-s/k)
Stated vs. True Limits
- true classes; classes that upper true (or real) limit of that class is the
same as the lower true limit of the next class
- stated classes; those classes that we see in grouped frequency
Bottom of interval: 1/2unit below stated & Top of interval: 1/2 unit
above stated
- The number of decimal places of stated limits determines the number
of zeros before the ``5`` that is subtracted or added to obtain the true
limit (1 decimal place =.05; 2 decimal places= .005, etc
The Midpoint
- class intervals have a midpoint
- Midpoint- SUM of the lowest and highest scores divided by 2. M=
LS+HS/2
Cumulative Distributions
- cf is cumulative frequencies. They are the total # of cases having any
given score or a score that is lower. The cumulative frequency for any
category or class interval is obtained by adding frequency in that
category to the total frequency for all categories.
- Cumulative percentage –percentage of cases having any score or a
lower score. c%=(100) cf/N
Cross Tabulations
-frequency distributions of each variable separately can be found along
the margins of a 2 way cross tabulation is called “marginal distributions”
•Rule of Thumb:
•If the independent variable is on the rows, use row percents. Row %=
(100) f/N row
•If the independent variable is on the columns, use column percents. Col
%= (100) f/N column
•If the independent variable is unclear –use whichever is most
meaningful.
•IN OUR CASE: we use column percentages because the independent
variable is on the column Graphs
- pie charts are good for nominal data
- Bar graphs used primarily for discrete variables
- Histograms used to show continuity along a scale
- Frequency polygons useful for ordinal and interval data
Ch.3
- 3 main types: mean, median and mode
- Mode; most frequent value in a distribution. Unimodal- 1 mode,
Bimodal- 2 mode
- Median is the middle case of a distribution
Md= n+1/2 (n= odd number of cases)
Even= no middle cases then Md= n/2 case…(n/2)+1 and the
value in between 2 numbers average it (a+b/2)
- Mean X= Ex/N
X=mean
Sum= E
X = raw scores in a set of scores
N = total number of scores in a set
- Three factors in choosing a measure of central tendency
1. Level of measurement
2. Shape or form of the distribution of data
3. Research Objective
- In symmetrical distribution –mode, median, and mean have identical
values
- In skewed data, the measures of central tendency are different
- Mean is always near and towards the skewed graph
x = md1f1+ md2f2+ md3f3n
- Deviation; distance and direction of any raw score from the mean. D= x
(any raw score)- _X(mean of the distribution). The greater the deviation,
the greater is the distance of that raw score from the mean of the
distribution.
CH 4
Measure of variability
- range= difference between the highest and lowest scores in a
distribution. R=H-L
The variance and standar

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