ALL Lecture Notes SOCC40.pdf

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Andrew Mc Kinnon

DURKHEIM FUNCTIONALISMLecture 1 and 2120304 515 PM thContemporary Roughly in the 20 century Mutually Assured Destruction MADMidterm 2 essay ques pick one of two ques and you combine LECTURE MATERIL and readings 21 questions 1 DURKHEIMS INFLUENCE a DURKHEIMS FUNCTIONAL ORIGINSDurkheim is a classical sociological theorist now we will see the relationship between Durkheim and Parsons because they are both FUNCTIONALISTS He is about order consensus and stabilityFunctionalists influence on Durkheim he became interested in sociology because he was first attracted to the humanity as he felt it did not offer MORAL CRISIS in Franceo History and philosophy was not capable of developing SCIENTIFIC LAWS that can deal with this crisiso Who was he influenced by KANT German Philosopher SAINT SIMON COMPTE French and SPENCER Englishall these people are functionalistso He felt that sociology must study the MORAL NATURE of modern industrial society o Wanted to create a MORALLY UNIFIED SOCIETY instead of fragmentation and disunity he calls that ANOMIEo Durkheim also borrows the idea of MORAL ORDER from COMPTE and he also borrows from SPENCER the larger societies become the more differentiated they become And the more ANOMIC they become as society become bigger SOCIAL EVOLUTIONISM over time hunters and gatherers 25 people As they become larger they become more differentiated society splits up into parts and more anomic more difficult to integrate o Although Durkheim was influenced by SPENCER he rejects English Utilitarianism because Utilitarianism is an English philosophy ideology according to Durkheim it is too INDIVIDUALISTIC too much individualism destroys SOCIAL HARMONYit also fails to appreciate how much individuals goals and DESIRES are shaped by societyo Utilitariansthe moral and ethical worth and value of any action is determined by the contribution to UTLITY utility is HAPPINESS pleasure desires Durkheim argues anti capitalist the pursuit of PLEASURE is detrimental to society as it undermines INTEGRATION He says this is BAD for SOCIAL INTEGRATION He apposes the English Utilitarianism 2 DURKHEIM ON SOCIETY a THE PROPERTIES OF SOCIETYhe thinks in terms of TOTALITY society is a totality A hole its a reality different from other realities It is unique and distincto Society is a reality of its own kind SUI GENERIS cant infer o Different from biological and psychological reality you cannot get society from biologyo Sociology deserves to be an independent discipline as it is known to be SUI GENEREISSociety is made up of these thingso COLLECTIVE REPERSENTATIONS these come from the collective not just the individuals which produce a COLLECTIVE CONSCIOUSNESS ask angali for this term How is this reality unique SUI GENERISHow is society SG o 1 Precedes society precedes you it comes before you and lives after you too Out lives youYour born into an ONGOING social world Your only here for a short time o 2 External Force people feel society is an external source And in this source comes CONSTRAIN Ex UTSC is an external force which constrains people it does it without you being aware of itSOCIALIZED o 3 Constrains to hold in check to hold backHEALTHY EGO Your born into an ONGOING social world Your only here for a short time When you are apart of this ONGOING reality you become SOCIALIZED your view of things become shaped by society Each generation socializes the next generation Once a gen is socialized it brings a new one b DURKHEIM ON SOCIAL CHANGEHE like SPENCER is an evolutionist evolutionary perspective the evolution of society overtime to small to complex He has this DYNAMIC view of society not STATIC Dynamic view that society is emergent a state of becoming society is always in FLUX undergoing change new reality is always emerging He argued that a HEALTHY EGO when a person is constrained held back and in check for him CONSTRAINT IS GOOD FOR YOU When individuals are not constrained it causes troublei MECHANICAL SOLIDARITY simple primitive societies tribal hunting gathering societies there is a wide degree of sharing on collective representations one person thinks virtually the same as another persondifferences are not allowed in this society almost TOTAL IDENTIFICATION in this type of societies you find very HIGH LEVELS OF SOCIAL INTEGRATION because societies differ in connection to how they integrated common beliefs and value where individualism is virtually unknownii ORGANIC SOLIDARITYAs population density increases more people in smaller areas interaction increases and competition increases Durkheim does not
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