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# [STAB22H3] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (21 pages long)

Department
Statistics
Course Code
STAB22H3
Professor
Caren Hasler
Study Guide
Midterm

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UTSC
STAB22H3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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STAB22 Chapter 1: Stats Starts Here
Lecture Outline:
1.1: What is Statistics?
1.2: Data
1.3: Variables
1.1: What is Statistics?
Statistics: is a way to understand the world by using tools and other methods such as data. Data
varies since we are not able to see everything and measure it exactly. However, statistics goes
beneath these variations to see the patterns and relationships amongst the data.
Data: is a collection of numbers, letters, images, or other items that can be seen on graphs or
images to provide information about a specific topic. It can also be a set of values either
qualitative or quantitative variables that can be measured, collected, reported, and analyzed to
be displayed on graphs and images.
1.2: Data
Data table: is a table that arranges data in such a way that each row represents a case while a
column represents a variable.
Case: is an individual or item about whom data has been collected. (Rows on a data table.)
Context: terms that display the attributes or characteristics of the data being collected. If a data
table does not have these terms, it is difficult to understand the specific values of the data.
To find the context of data, you should ask the “Five W’s”:
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Who: the individual cases or objects that are being described by the data. These are
represented by the rows on a data table, which provide characteristics. For example, on
the data table, the students would be considered as the individual cases.
What: the characteristics of individual cases or objects. These are also called variables.
For instance, in the data table, student number, date of birth, gender, and GPA are
considered to be the characteristics.
Why: the purpose of the data and why the study is being performed.
Where: the data is being collected.
When: the data was collected.
How: the data was collected.
Respondents: people who do surveys that are used to collect data.
Subjects/Participants: people who are experimented on.
Experimental units: inanimate objects that are used as subjects to collect data upon.
Records: information about an individual in a database. Rows are also known as records in a
database.
Sample: a small part of the population that is examined in order to find out more about the entire
population.
Population: A big group of individuals of whom we want to learn about.
1.3: Variables
Variables: the characteristics of individual cases or objects. They are the columns that have the
context of a data table. For instance, in the data table, student number, date of birth, gender,
and GPA are considered to be the characteristics.
There are a few types of variables:
Categorical variables (qualitative): are variables that can put an item/individual in a
group or a set of categories. These set of categories can be called a nominal scale. For
example: mode of transportation can be used as the variable and the nominal scale can
be bus, subway, car etc.
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