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[VPMA93H3] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (27 pages long)


Department
Music and Culture
Course Code
VPMA93H3
Professor
Rosanne King
Study Guide
Final

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UTSC
VPMA93H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

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Listening to Music Week 1 Lecture Notes
Our society has an interesting distinction between people who think they are musical,
people who perform, and people who consume music
Despite this, we actually all have a high degree of musicality as listeners since we are
able to associate music with different things
All music is equal and no one genre is better than the other
Music is a mode of communication
Music is a product of human behaviour
Sound
oFrequency—in acoustics, the number of complete vibrations or cycles per
second in a vibrating system, such as a string or a column of air; frequency is the
primary determinant of the listener’s perception of pitch
Pitch—the relative position (high or low) of a musical sound, depending
on its fundamental frequency (the number of cycles per second of the
sounding object); the faster the vibrations, the higher the pitch
Tone—a sound with a definite, consistent pitch
Like a performance aspect… how the musician approaches the
frequency… “You have a very nice tone”
What makes instruments sound different?
oYou actually hear multiple frequencies when you hear a sound and it is the
combination of these frequencies that make up the sound
oWe hear the entire length of the frequency the most, whatever is the lowest on
the scale of vibrating Hz
oHarmonics—a series of frequencies, all of which are integral multiples of a single
frequency termed the fundamental; the secondary tones above a fundamental
pitch that, taken in sum, help form the totality of that sound
oOvertone/Partial—a secondary vibration in a sound-producing body, which
contributes to the overall tone colour
oInstruments
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Listening to Music Week 1 Lecture Notes
Flute
Strong fundamental, Strong 1st Overtone
Pure sound
Notice, you don’t hear many overtones
Oboe
Not much of the fundamental
Violin
You hear many overtones
oReal life example
Overtone singing!
Sound production
oAttack—how the sound is produced… column of air is blown, plucking a string
oRelease—air column stops, bow reduces in pressure
oSustaining
oDecay—reduce in pitch
oAltogether this forms the sound envelope—the combination of characteristics
defining the attack, steady state, and decay of a tone
Sound wave also depends on the material of the instrument, the
structure, etc
Timbre—the character or quality of a musical sound as determined by its harmonics and
sound envelope
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