VPMA93H3 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Joseph Kosma, Jean Ritchie, Irish Mythology

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Published on 19 May 2017
School
Course
Professor
Name of piece
Lecture Slide
Joseph Kosma, Autumn
Leaves (1945)
Idiophones with definite pitch
Vibraphone - resonator, damper
Jean Ritchie, Shady Grove
Chordophone- sound is produced by a vibrating
string activated by striking, plucking, or bowing
Applachian Dulcimer - quill to pluck the string;
"drone strings"
Appalachian dulcimera plucked
zither found chiefly in the
Appalachian Mountains; it is held
horizotall the plaer’s lap ad
strummed with a quill or the thumb
of the right hand; the string nearest
the player is the melody string and is
stopped either with a finger or a
wooden bar; the remaining strings
are drones
François Couperin, Les
Baricades Mistérieuses
(1716-1717)
Piano - "when you press a key, the wood lifts up,
takes the damper (for single actuation) to
'hammer' the string', then comes back down to
stop it from ringing"
Harpsichord - "plucked" string, vs "struck" string
by a piano hammer
Lecture 2 (harpsichord):
range - narrow
contour - undulating
motion - both disjunct and conjunct
ornamentation - trill at 0:42
motive
Ornamentation - trills heavily used (particularly in
Baroque period). Part of "performance practice" -
intrumentalists and vocalists think about how to
add it into the melodic line. (i.e. Chopin)
Henry Cowell, The
Banshee (1925)
Banshee - "type of spirit in Irish folklore, appears
before someone is about to die"
20th century composers try to find sound
qualities (i.e. plucking the piano string)
There are four types of sound in this
piece made by four distinct playing
techniques:
1) sweeping the flesh of the fingers
across the wire-wound strings
2) rubbing along the length of the
wire-wound strings with the flesh of
the finger
3) plucking strings with the flesh of
the finger (pizzicato) (0:51)
4) rubbing along the length of the
string with the back of the fingernail
(1:08)
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Richard Strauss, Don
Quixote, Variation II
(1897)
Flutter tonguing - on brass instruments, "the
tongue is fluttered or trilled against the roof of
the mouth, just
behind the front teeth". i.e. the sheeps in Don
Quixote
Lecture 2 (program music): recreate events in
terms of sound (i.e. Don Quixote's entrance, flock
of sheeps, etc.) for example, Religion
Large range with a quick ascend.
Sancho- servant, undulating melody, small range
Fanfare for victory, uncertainty and nervousness
in war, sadness in death and defeat
: Do Quiote’s thee “aho
Paza’s thee jois i at :
0:20 Our heroes encounter a flock of
sheep
0:38 The flock slowly moves and the
sounds of the sheep grow louder as
the Don and Sancho draw near
1:00 Don Quixote charges the sheep
: Do Quiote’s thee returs
triumphantly after the sheep scatter
Edgard Varèse, Poème
électronique (1957-1958)
Electrophones - sound produced via electric
means. Played at world's fair, inside pavilion a
light show, hearing a variety of sounds. 350
different speakers placed around the pavilion w/
different sounds @ you, accompanied by a
different light show
musique concrète music in which the composer
works directly with both natural and
electronically produced sounds recorded on
magnetic tape
0:00 Large bell toll, buzzes, sirens
0:52 Blips, squawks
0:56 Three-note chromatic ascent
heard three times
1:10 Drill pitches, rattling chains,
assoo
1:34 Three-note chromatic ascent,
followed by blips and squawks
: “eagulls
2:08 Percussion instruments,
electronic sliding sounds
2:40 Large bell returns, sustained
tones, etc.
Voal souds egi at :; ou
oughtta ko at :
Anon., Gaude virgo
salutata
Compiled around 1360, medieval music,
plainsong/plainchant/gregorian chant. Used for
medieval music, religious ceremonies, or not
(secular nature, non-religious)
range - narrow (only 5 pitches)
contour- undulating (Wavering up and down)
motion conjunct motion (no leaps)
ornamentation unornamented melody
monophony - single line of melody (voice)
Aspects of Melody:
Range narrow, medium,
wide
Contour level, undulating,
ascending, descending, arch-
shaped
Motion conjunct, disjunct
Ornamentation
unornamented, highly
ornamented
Harold Arlen, E.Y.
Harburg, Over the
Rainbow
range medium range for the human voice
contour octave, big leap @ the beginning
motion - many leaps, conjunct and disjunct
motion
ornamentation - unornamented
Neither ascending or descending
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