1. How is gender hierarchy connected to binary thinking? Explain and illustrate your explanation with
What is gender?
Gender is not self-Efficient Simon
“One is not born, but becomes a woman."
it has a lot of meaning around it- LGBTQ contemprary society has so much more meaning to gender
than binary form.
gender used to determines different types of behaviour
Gender: Nature or Social?
o men and women's are born different
o differences in body lead to differences in behaviour
o example- women seen as caregiver , birth , naturally better at care giving, keeping the home,
taking care of people
o Men - seen as aggressive , hunters/gathers society explaining the essentialist view , the
o Sex and gender differences due to biology “boys will be boys”
Social Constructionist View
o The word sex - physiological and biological difference
o The word Gender- used for social and cultural differences
o Gender differences due to social and cultural meanings that are mapped onto bodies. Gender
expectations Canadian --> women are independent
“I think therefore I am” Descartes (1596-1650)
o Feminist - why there are differences in society
o The mind is everything and superior to the body ,
o Mind/Body Dualism Mind- men is superior than the body- women
Public sphere/private sphere
woman seen as slaved by their body , childbearing
The gender dualism that was something which was neutral
Woman as Nature
o nature is something wild , not as intelligent refers to not being developed
o gender is a type of difference which mark people from power
o There are different meaning developed by the bodies , how bodies are created differently-
o gender, race, class - creates different hierarchy
EXAMPLE: DUE TO BIANRY THINKING THERE IS A GENDER HIRERCHY CREATED: ARE BOYS BETTER THAN GIRLS
IN MATH: Due to biological reasons, men are are naturally superior at some activities and women are
biologically are naturally superior at others. Girls probably were nervous as the society was already convinced
that the boys were better in math. During the in class group discussion my class mater narrated her experience when she approached her male teacher when she was experiencing difficulties in math he blamed it to her
gender saying that she was a girl and there wasn’t anything to be done.
2. Name, explain, and illustrate two aspects of West and Zimmerman’s theory “doing gender.”
Gender Display (Goffman)
When ppl interact they assume that each individual possess an “essential nature”- a nature that can be
distinguish thru the natural signs given off or expressed by them. EX: femininity and masculinity are
essential expression that can be noticed.
Gender display- if gender be defined as the culturally established correlated of sex (whther in
consequence of biology or learning), then gender display refers to conventionalized portrayals of these
Goffman believes gender display is optional. was argued that goffman ignores the serious business
of interaction, and he shud consider the “doing gender”.
Way of categorization: “if-can”- if ppl can be seen as members of relevant category, then categorize
them that way.
Garfinkel notes that in everyday life, we live in a world of ONLY two sexes. Hence we include ourselves
and others in it as male or female.
Resources for doing gender
Doing gender means making difference between girls/boys, women/men-diff that are not biological,
natural or essential.
Goffman observes the creation of variety of institutionalized frameworks thru which our natural,
normal sexedness can be enacted EX: baby boys with blue and girls with pink; bathrooms (men and
He also cites sports as one such institionalized framework, where traits such as endurance, strength
e.t.c are seen as masculine and celebrated.
Our indetificatory displays will provide an ever available recourse for doing gender under an infinitely
diverse set of circumstances.
Role conflict- can be viewed as a dynamic aspect of our current arrangement between the sexes. EX: if
a woman is working, she will feel like she is out of place and if she was not working, the trouble of
taking care of the house would not be there.
3. Name threedifferent types of feminisms and how they differ in their approachto the study of gender
Functionalist: they view social roles as the views of society. Gender roles are functional. In hunter gatherer
society it was be functional if women took care of home, did the naturing and men would get bread.
Functional wud be prominent in patriarchal society.
Critic: it just looks at gender roles as complimentary, he doesn’t look for how it is disfunctional, EX: doesn’t
look at inequlity. It looks at gender only in hetereosexual fam. Symbolic interactionist theory: it is a micro view of gender. It looks at how gender developed in face to face
interaction. They might look at how gender is produced in a night club or bar but within a framework of
cultural norm. westtern subarban in readdings define symbolic interaction in their house work.
Critic: it only focuses at micro and ignore the larger issues of power. It doesn’t address other parts of gender:
race and class.
Conflict theory/marxist theory: it is a theory that takes class struggle as a current prob in society. Two classes:
proletariat (rich) and burgeioge (poor). The way they look at gender, they saw fam as even divided, they saw it
as a product of captilist: men and women were in competition with each other. Groups who are powerless do
the most work (women).
Critic: it didn’t treat gender, it didn’t look at gender in other ways such as economic, role of presentation in
power relations. They don’t really account for colored ppl (men).
Socialization: the idea we learned gender roles in our fam and in diff institutions.EX: schools, sports.
4. Explain the view that colonization was a patriarchal and racial project. Illustrate with an example.
Post Colonialism Europeans were shocked to see the power roles of ab women. The traditional European
women were only engaged in domestic duties and did not have much say or freedom in society. However, the
ab women had sexual freedom, leadership roles, say in important matters. In Europe some women did possess
these powerful rights but they were not respected in society. Post colonisation many French women
converted in aboriginals. While most of the colonists were threatened by the central role ab women played by
refusing to convert, send their daughters to catholic schools, nuclear families, right to divorce, agriculture. As a
result their power attacked and imposed patriarchal values. Colonization Gendered: Aboriginal were
considered uncivilized. Ab women were immoral- presented in a diff. way. Ideas of particular ethnic group are
misrepresented e.g. British women viewing Indian women as “oppressed”
Racism, Sexism and Colonialism
Aboriginal ppl in Canada: poor health, lower life expectancy, elevated mobility rates , suicide rate,
chronic illness, cancer. < higher than non-Aboriginal women
Chronic disease higher in Aboriginal women than Aboriginal men. EX: diabities more pronounced in
Aboriginal women then Aboriginal men or general pop.
o Cause: forced acculturation imposed on Aboriginal ppl.
Aboriginal women face: highest poverty, low social stat, low income, and greater violence rates.
Gender and ethinicity have been shown influencial determinants of health across pop
Race: natural units or pop that share distinct biological characteristics.
Ethnic: culturally distinct groups.
Racism: biopsycholosocial stressor that hfas sever negative health effects on racialized individuals.
Racism and sexism: both operate via an external power structures to contribute to poor health
Culture and cultural diff also contribute to poor health. EX: cultural groups that lived under
colonization experience oppression that causes poor health for instance indigenous ppl.
Links between sexism, racism, colonialism and aboriginal women’s health.
Sexism, racism and colonialism are dynamic measurable determinants of heath Colonialism depends on the oppression of one group by another, beginning with the process described
as “othering”-sorts two groups- the reference group and the “other”.
The Indian act differentially affects aboriginal women/men in Canada
Colonial discourse has historically represented non-white pop as really inferior. EX: Linda Tuhiwai Smith
notes that racist and sexist notions about the role of women were imposed upon indigenous
communities by white, European settlers with patriarchal consciousness, she argued that they had
negative impacts on Aboriginal women’s identities their sense of who they are.
Colonization and contemporary process of ongoing colonization have direct effect on Aboriginal
women’s access to social determinants of health and impedes their ability to develop a sence of who
The interplay of gender and race: women as colonizer and colonized
Britain was patriarchal.
Women from UK who went to colonies on their own or as colonial administrators, took it as a mission
to save the unfortunate women of these colonies. they were full if not equal participants in the
creation of white supremacy.
The relations of domination and subordination made the colonizers (whites) superior and turned the
colonized (indian) into the other.
Flora shaw and Beatrice Webb emipires feminist who promoted imperialism and its elitist idealogy
of the natural superiority of the British race and its consequent entitlement to dominate othersthese
women understood how they were oppressed as women and fought for inequality in sexes and
eventually won from the ruling empire.
5. Explain the difference between an essentialist and a social constructionist view of gender and illustrate with
o men and women's are born different
o differences in body lead to differences in behaviour
o example- women seen as caregiver , birth , naturally bette