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University of Toronto Scarborough
Women's and Gender Studies
Annissa Talhamoodley

1. How is gender hierarchy connected to binary thinking? Explain and illustrate your explanation with an example.  What is gender?  Gender is not self-Efficient Simon 
“One is not born, but becomes a woman."  it has a lot of meaning around it- LGBTQ contemprary society has so much more meaning to gender than binary form.  gender used to determines different types of behaviour  Gender: Nature or Social?  Essentialist View o men and women's are born different o differences in body lead to differences in behaviour o example- women seen as caregiver , birth , naturally better at care giving, keeping the home, taking care of people o Men - seen as aggressive , hunters/gathers society explaining the essentialist view , the breadwinners, o Sex and gender differences due to biology “boys will be boys”  Social Constructionist View o The word sex - physiological and biological difference o The word Gender- used for social and cultural differences o Gender differences due to social and cultural meanings that are mapped onto bodies. Gender expectations Canadian --> women are independent  Man/Woman binary o Enlightenment:
“I think therefore I am” Descartes (1596-1650) o Feminist - why there are differences in society o The mind is everything and superior to the body , o Mind/Body Dualism Mind- men is superior than the body- women  man/woman
Mind/body  Rationality/emotion  Technology/nature
  Public sphere/private sphere  woman seen as slaved by their body , childbearing  The gender dualism that was something which was neutral  Woman as Nature o nature is something wild , not as intelligent refers to not being developed o gender is a type of difference which mark people from power o There are different meaning developed by the bodies , how bodies are created differently- biological differences. o gender, race, class - creates different hierarchy EXAMPLE: DUE TO BIANRY THINKING THERE IS A GENDER HIRERCHY CREATED: ARE BOYS BETTER THAN GIRLS IN MATH: Due to biological reasons, men are are naturally superior at some activities and women are biologically are naturally superior at others. Girls probably were nervous as the society was already convinced that the boys were better in math. During the in class group discussion my class mater narrated her experience when she approached her male teacher when she was experiencing difficulties in math he blamed it to her gender saying that she was a girl and there wasn’t anything to be done. 2. Name, explain, and illustrate two aspects of West and Zimmerman’s theory “doing gender.” Gender Display (Goffman)  When ppl interact they assume that each individual possess an “essential nature”- a nature that can be distinguish thru the natural signs given off or expressed by them. EX: femininity and masculinity are essential expression that can be noticed.  Gender display- if gender be defined as the culturally established correlated of sex (whther in consequence of biology or learning), then gender display refers to conventionalized portrayals of these correlates.  Goffman believes gender display is optional.  was argued that goffman ignores the serious business of interaction, and he shud consider the “doing gender”. Sex Categorization  Way of categorization: “if-can”- if ppl can be seen as members of relevant category, then categorize them that way.  Garfinkel notes that in everyday life, we live in a world of ONLY two sexes. Hence we include ourselves and others in it as male or female. Resources for doing gender  Doing gender means making difference between girls/boys, women/men-diff that are not biological, natural or essential.  Goffman observes the creation of variety of institutionalized frameworks thru which our natural, normal sexedness can be enacted EX: baby boys with blue and girls with pink; bathrooms (men and women separated).  He also cites sports as one such institionalized framework, where traits such as endurance, strength e.t.c are seen as masculine and celebrated.  Our indetificatory displays will provide an ever available recourse for doing gender under an infinitely diverse set of circumstances.  Role conflict- can be viewed as a dynamic aspect of our current arrangement between the sexes. EX: if a woman is working, she will feel like she is out of place and if she was not working, the trouble of taking care of the house would not be there. 3. Name threedifferent types of feminisms and how they differ in their approachto the study of gender inequality. Functionalist: they view social roles as the views of society. Gender roles are functional. In hunter gatherer society it was be functional if women took care of home, did the naturing and men would get bread. Functional wud be prominent in patriarchal society. Critic: it just looks at gender roles as complimentary, he doesn’t look for how it is disfunctional, EX: doesn’t look at inequlity. It looks at gender only in hetereosexual fam. Symbolic interactionist theory: it is a micro view of gender. It looks at how gender developed in face to face interaction. They might look at how gender is produced in a night club or bar but within a framework of cultural norm. westtern subarban in readdings define symbolic interaction in their house work. Critic: it only focuses at micro and ignore the larger issues of power. It doesn’t address other parts of gender: race and class. Conflict theory/marxist theory: it is a theory that takes class struggle as a current prob in society. Two classes: proletariat (rich) and burgeioge (poor). The way they look at gender, they saw fam as even divided, they saw it as a product of captilist: men and women were in competition with each other. Groups who are powerless do the most work (women). Critic: it didn’t treat gender, it didn’t look at gender in other ways such as economic, role of presentation in power relations. They don’t really account for colored ppl (men). Socialization: the idea we learned gender roles in our fam and in diff institutions.EX: schools, sports. 4. Explain the view that colonization was a patriarchal and racial project. Illustrate with an example. Post Colonialism Europeans were shocked to see the power roles of ab women. The traditional European women were only engaged in domestic duties and did not have much say or freedom in society. However, the ab women had sexual freedom, leadership roles, say in important matters. In Europe some women did possess these powerful rights but they were not respected in society. Post colonisation many French women converted in aboriginals. While most of the colonists were threatened by the central role ab women played by refusing to convert, send their daughters to catholic schools, nuclear families, right to divorce, agriculture. As a result their power attacked and imposed patriarchal values. Colonization Gendered: Aboriginal were considered uncivilized. Ab women were immoral- presented in a diff. way. Ideas of particular ethnic group are misrepresented e.g. British women viewing Indian women as “oppressed” Racism, Sexism and Colonialism  Aboriginal ppl in Canada: poor health, lower life expectancy, elevated mobility rates , suicide rate, chronic illness, cancer. < higher than non-Aboriginal women  Chronic disease higher in Aboriginal women than Aboriginal men. EX: diabities more pronounced in Aboriginal women then Aboriginal men or general pop. o Cause: forced acculturation imposed on Aboriginal ppl.  Aboriginal women face: highest poverty, low social stat, low income, and greater violence rates.  Gender and ethinicity have been shown influencial determinants of health across pop  Race: natural units or pop that share distinct biological characteristics.  Ethnic: culturally distinct groups.  Racism: biopsycholosocial stressor that hfas sever negative health effects on racialized individuals.  Racism and sexism: both operate via an external power structures to contribute to poor health  Culture and cultural diff also contribute to poor health. EX: cultural groups that lived under colonization experience oppression that causes poor health for instance indigenous ppl. Links between sexism, racism, colonialism and aboriginal women’s health.  Sexism, racism and colonialism are dynamic measurable determinants of heath  Colonialism depends on the oppression of one group by another, beginning with the process described as “othering”-sorts two groups- the reference group and the “other”.  The Indian act differentially affects aboriginal women/men in Canada  Colonial discourse has historically represented non-white pop as really inferior. EX: Linda Tuhiwai Smith notes that racist and sexist notions about the role of women were imposed upon indigenous communities by white, European settlers with patriarchal consciousness, she argued that they had negative impacts on Aboriginal women’s identities their sense of who they are.  Colonization and contemporary process of ongoing colonization have direct effect on Aboriginal women’s access to social determinants of health and impedes their ability to develop a sence of who they are. The interplay of gender and race: women as colonizer and colonized  Britain was patriarchal.  Women from UK who went to colonies on their own or as colonial administrators, took it as a mission to save the unfortunate women of these colonies. they were full if not equal participants in the creation of white supremacy.  The relations of domination and subordination made the colonizers (whites) superior and turned the colonized (indian) into the other.  Flora shaw and Beatrice Webb emipires feminist who promoted imperialism and its elitist idealogy of the natural superiority of the British race and its consequent entitlement to dominate othersthese women understood how they were oppressed as women and fought for inequality in sexes and eventually won from the ruling empire. 5. Explain the difference between an essentialist and a social constructionist view of gender and illustrate with an example.  Essentialist View o men and women's are born different o differences in body lead to differences in behaviour o example- women seen as caregiver , birth , naturally bette
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