Masculinity Studies

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Masculinity Studies
Made visible through gender studies
Images of masculinity: often confusing and contradictory
Media heroes: courageous, competent and always in control but sometimes romantic and sensitive
Women: praise both sensitivity AND toughness in men
Most men fall short when they attempt to satisfy both standards
What should men do? Where do all these messages come from?
Male Standards: Six Historical Periods
Developed into 6 historical period
1ST IS Epic Man: the major features of this is the action, masculinity, patriarchy
2nd Spiritual Man (400BCE) ideal man is the spiritual man, major feature are anti-feminine, anti-
homosexual attitude, and strong patriarchal system
3rd Chivalric Man (12CE) self-sacrifice, honour and service to the lady
4th Renaissance Man
5TH Bourgeois Man (18th) well manner
6th Modern Man ()individualistic, independent man against the war, masculinity through war and
soldiery, hero independence, risk taking, dominance and competition; sport is the only institution
offer them to achieve masculinity without war
Hegemonic Masculinity
Idealized norms
Acted out by the most powerful men
White, middle class, and heterosexual
Other masculine styles are rendered inadequate and inferior
Harms men of color, poor men, third world” men, and non-heterosexual men
Harms women
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