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University of Toronto St. George

RELIGION MLACHICAGO Three Worlds heaven earth underworld celestial realm wave constant change never the same cannot separate religion and culturalTen Waves of Religion WilfredCantwell Smith religion in the singular history of human religiosity in broadest sense 500 bce leadership of a great prophetgod born in human form was taking rootcomplex organizations usually oversimplified religious movements act as waves modifying environments creating new conditions which are usually familiar to those accepting it old ones are replaced by new onesWave 1 SHAMANISM ritual specialist medicine man soul doctor carvings indicate some kind of ritual being practiced mostly to appease spirits more dangerous the community in terms of hunting and fighting to survive the greater the ritualistic practicesnatural phenomena acts like humans when they interact with each other many of these spirits are considered to be negative figures such as trolls witches scareoffs diseases were often affiliated with these spirits and rituals were done in order to scare them off eg Sri Lankans offered a live chicken shamans were often qualified after doing a kind of vision quest ultimately proving his physical abilities to endure fear and hardship to communicate with the outside world the shaman takes a new role calling the spirit inside him in attempt to calm down its anger and restlessness mimicking its screams voice and behavior finally closing the ceremony by offering a sacrifice Wave 2 CONNECTING THE COSMOS Neolithic peoples set aside stone henges built as sacrificial areas usually has a political purpose but generally holding important community ceremonies strong religious purpose priests used it to determine future seasonal planning ultimately setting the foundations of astrology high structures and hillstops were preferred especially as burial sites to connect with the hereafterworldaxisaxis mundi ultimately connecting the earth to the sky animals were often related to gods in places like Turkey Greece India and Egypt eg bull god nandi Wave 3 TEMPLE RELIGION more elaborate sacrificial sites with unusual wealth power and prestige IndoEuropean refers to the language and cultural system which stretched from India to Europe most important in human history when ie warriors conquered they set up a social division contained of 4 divisions priests warriors middleclass commoners and local people priests performed rituals kept the calendar taught the young and advised the king top clans were the rulers the commoners earned a living and the locals were considered as servantssimilar to counterparts from centuries ago came across afg Greece rome india Pakistan Egypt Jewish priesthood was hereditary and elsewhere it was recruited very powerful in all parts of the world only men qualified and women excluded because of menstrual cycle Wave 4 PROPHETIC RELIGION prophet speaks behalf of a diety or foresees the future oracle at Delphi was constructed in a womb form representing female power those who wanted to communicate with the oracle had to make their request known pay a fee and sacrifice a black goat oedipus kill his father marry his mother to avoid fate Zarathustralived in the region of Iran and Afgpeople would be condemned and punished for their sins on the day of judgment and after all sins were washed away they were allowed to enter paradisebelieved in a wise lord ahura mazda important to the development of monotheism Wave5 ENERGY GOD An energy exists besides a skyfather or earthmother related to physics more than godly figures Daoism of China India presocratics sage Laozi worked for government as an archivist widely attracted students then left job and went to the west student begged to record teachings Daodejing Book about Dao and its power no characteristics attributes such as angry loving fearful the energy like water takes form in however we shape the world Svetaketus father whos a king decided to teach him about the secret wisdom need of sleep and food tells him to taste the water before and after the sea salt was put in no difference except the taste it is like that hidden and secret presence that is present in the world it energizes everything and the highest and ultimate reality which is that you are tat tvam asi philosophy before Socrates attempts to explain the cause the source of all things such as earth fire water and fire without god being the final cause it marked a major advance towards the development of the scientific worldview
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