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Test 1 - 2012.pdf

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ANA 301S – MULTIPLE CHOICE FEBRUARY 13, 2012 Time: 90 minutes. No Aids Value: THIS EXAMINATION IS WORTH 35% OF YOUR FINAL MARK IN ANA 301S INSTRUCTIONS: ___________________________________________________________________ 1. Print and code your student number and name in the spaces provided on the computer sheet. Code surname first, beginning in the first column – be sure you code your name and student number. 2. All answers must be marked by an ordinary HB pencil. Fill in the appropriate space completely and darkly. You may erase an incorrect answer, but do so completely. 3. For each question, READ THE INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY. All question. are of equal value. There is only one appropriate answer to each 4. Excluding the cover page, there are 10 pages and 40 questions in this examination. Please check that all pages are present before starting the examination. NO QUESTIONS WILL BE ANSWERED BY THE INVIGILATORS DURING THE EXAMINATION . 1. Cytogenetic analysis of a tissue biopsy taken from a 21-year old year old individual reveals that the nuclei of the cells have an X chromosome but lack a second sex chromosome. Which one of the following is the most reasonable additional finding? A) Kleinfelter’s syndrome B) Testes but no spermatozoa C) Patau’s syndrome D) Ovaries that do not ovulate E) Abnormally elevated levels of estrogen 2. During the process of spermatogenesis populations of cells move progressively from the basement membrane toward the lumen (cavity) of the seminiferous tubule. Select the one best completion regarding this process. The first of the cell populations to leave contact with the basement membrane on their way to crossing the blood-testis barrier are the … A) Sertoli cells B) Dark type A spermatogonia C) Type B spermatogonia D) Primary spermatocytes E) Secondary spermatocytes 3. A woman in the 20 week of pregnancy with an elevated serum alpha fetoprotein level undergoes an ultrasound examination which reveals an open defect in the lower part of the spinal cord (myelochisis) of the fetus. The defect is thought to be the result of failure of the caudal neuropore to close. During which weeks of development is this defect most likely to have occurred? A) 1 to 2 weeks B) 4 to 6 weeks C) 9 to 11 weeks D) 12 to 15 weeks E) 16 to 19 week 4. A male newborn suffers a complex of congenital defects that affect the kidneys and testicles. Examination of the family history reveals several members sharing a similar pattern of defects that spans 3 generations. These issues could reasonable be related to a defect that is expressed in which of the following embryonic tissues? A) Intermediate mesoderm B) Paraxial mesoderm C) Neural Crest D) Surface (non-neural) ectoderm E) Yolk sac endoderm 1 5. Which one of the following best describes when implantation begins following fertilization in the human? A) 24 hours B) 3 days C) 7 days D) 10 days E) 14 days 6. A 28 year old who is unaware yet of her pregnancy undergoes a chemotherapy treatment that coincides with the end of the first week of embryonic development. Chemotherapy treatment is associated with slowing the rate of mitosis in cells including cancerous cells. However, the treatment may also have a negative influence on the implantation and growth of an embryo. In which of the following layers would a lowered rate of cell division be most likely to hinder implantation of the embryo? A) Endometrium B) Cytotrophoblast C) Syncytiotrophoblast D) Epiblast E) Hypoblast 7. Select the correct statement regarding the amniotic membrane. A) The amniotic membrane is a typical feature of the blastocyst stage of development. B) The amniotic membrane is the source of the human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) that is the indication of pregnancy in the common pregnancy test. C) The amniotic membrane develops from the cells of the trophoblast D) The amniotic membrane attaches to the margins of the epiblast. E) Extraembryonic mesoderm protects the amniotic membrane from coming into direct contact with the amniotic fluid. 8. Which one of the following best describes the tissue(s) in which the blood vessels in the embryo develop? A) Ectoderm B) Mesoderm C) Endoderm D) A + B E) B + C 2 9. Select the one best completion. Attachment of the sperm cell to the membrane of the oocyte .. .. .. A) must occur within 2 or 3 hours of ovulation or the oocyte cannot be fertilized. B) is accomplished by attachment of integrin receptors in the sperm cell membrane to molecules of fertilin in the membrane of the oocyte. C) is followed by secretion of the contents of the cortical granules. D) is a species specific interaction in which the sperm cell is only able to attach to the membrane of an egg from the same species. E) normally cannot take place until after the zona reaction has been completed. 10. Each of the following adult structures except one is matched with an embryonic tissue that directly contributes to its development. Select the incorrect match. A) Secretory cells in the liver - lateral plate mesoderm B) Postganglionic autonomic neurons of the sympathetic chain and the prevertebral ganglia – neural crest cells C) Vertebral column – paraxial mesoderm D) Connective tissues in the walls of the intestines – lateral plate mesoderm E) Cells lining the esophagus – endoderm of the primitive foregut 11. A 30 year old woman who has obtained a positive result using a pregnancy test kit from a pharmacy informs her physician that she normally has a regular 28 day menstrual cycle. She reports that she has missed one period and was due to start her next period 2 days ago. Her physician obtains a second positive test and confirms the pregnancy. Which one of the following terms should her physician use to describe the developing conceptus at this stage? A) Morula B) Blastula C) Gastrula D) Embryo E) Fetus 12. During the process of gametogenesis in the male, which one of the following cell populations begins the process of spermiogenesis? A) Pale type A spermatogonia B) Type B spermatogonia C) Primary spermatocytes D) Secondary spermatocytes E) Spermatids 3 13. Following ovulation, which one of the following hormones of the corpus luteum is directly responsible for stimulating the secretory phase of uterine pregnancy in preparation to receive the implanting ovary? A) FSH B) LH C) OMI D) Progesterone E) hCG 14. Select the least appropriate completion. The second meiotic division of the oocyte .. .. .. .. #14 Either A) begins while the oocyte is still in the ovary. C or E B) is not completed until the sperm cell contacts the egg cell membrane. accepted as C) leads to the production of a secondary oocyte and a second polar body. correct D) never occurs in the majority of the oocytes present in the ovary. E) follows an increase in the secretion of OMI. 15. Select the least appropriate completion. The follicular (granulosa) cells … A) are responsible for synthesizing the zona pellucida. B) contribute cells to the structure of the corpus luteum following ovulation. C) secrete LH. D) contribute cells to the corona radiata. E) form a single layer of cells in the primordial follicle. 16. During oogenesis several follicles will reach the stage of the early secondary follicle but typically only one will reach the maturity to ovulate. Which one of the following is not normally found in the majority of secondary follicles that are present in an ovary at any one time? A) A zona pellucida B) OMI producing cells C) A first polar body D) Cells that secrete androgens E) Gap junctions 4 17. Which one of the following is the principal location for sperm cell storage? A) seminiferous tubules B) epididymis C) seminal vesicles D) vas deferens (ductus deferens) E) all of the above 18. Select the one best completion. The cells that line the primitive yolk sac of the bilaminar embryo are derived from … A) the trophoblast. B) the extraembryonic somatic mesoderm. C) the extraembryonic splanchnic mesoderm. D) the hypoblast. E) the epiblast. 19. Select the one best completion. Kleinfelter’s syndrome is associated with …. A) an extra Y chromosome. B) a missing X chromosome. C) absence of sperm cells from the semen. D) streak ovaries. E) undescended testicles. 20. Select the correct completion. Ectopic pregnancy . . . A) occurs in about one third of all pregnancies. B) most often occurs in the peritoneum covering one of the organs of the pelvis. C) can be corrected surgically by transplanting the implantation site to the uterus. D) may be associated with a history of endometriosis. E) usually develops to full term but must be delivered by Caesarian section. 21. Select the incorrect statement. A) Spermatozoa normally find it more difficult to penetrate ‘E’ type cervical mucous than ‘G’ type cervical mucous. B) Varicocele is a condition that can lead to a
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