Lecture 1-6 Final Exam Review Study Guide Apr 8 2009

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23 Aug 2010
Socio-Cultural Lectures (Condensed)
LECTURE 1: Cultured Beasts
x What is Culture?
o Learned, shared, dynamic, functional, conflictive
x Ethnocentric: Putting own culture in top
x Ethnocentric Evolutionists
o ³$UP&KDLU3KDVH´ZRUNLQJIURPRIILFH-> Field Work/Participation Observation
o Ex: Malinowski
Australia= Native Village (Trobian Islanders)
Learned language, lived with natives, participate observation, field work- committed himself to culture for 2 yrs
x Comparative Method: Thinking about difference
LECTURE 2: The Power of Culture and The Culture of Power
x Learning Culture
o Starts from birth (taught directly)-> absorbed-> emulation (copying)-> testing cultural meaning (correcting ourselves if necessary)
x Myths
o Magical stories, Complex, symbolic tales, tell moral stories
o Contemporary myths: displayed in movies
x Analyzing Myths
o Functionalist (Cognitive)
Myths teach us about our place in nature, supernatural forces, and give us clues as to where we fit in the grand scheme
of things
Function of myths is to satisfy our questions about the world that would otherwise be difficult to answer (where do we
come from? Why are we here?)
o Structuralist (Claude Levi-Strauss, Symbolic Analysis, Universal Human Problems)
Analyze the symbols found in the myth (main characters, events, themes, types)
Myths never perfectly resolve the problem
Myths become subtly adjusted to reflect present reality
Give us a way to talk about difficult human problems
x **MOVIE**
o Lord of the Rings & Chronicles
Moral tale about how to live in human life
Reinforces power, authority and hierarchy, organized military (Power= good/bad)
Allow some ppl to be in power as long as we choose the noble/just
x Integrative/Exploitative Theories of Social Stratification
o How are ppl convinced to live in hierarchal societies?
o Integrated Theory
Hierarchy is necessary for keeping peace and organizing society
LECTURE 3: The Price of Progress: Feast & Famine
x Agricultural Revolution
o Agriculture: using domesticated plants/animals
o Labour
Foraging-> domestic (More labour required)
Increase in pop, specialized jobs, surpluses
o Property
Energy intensive farming, soil (infinite)
Fallow: using land one year then not next to grow crops
Land=private property (invest hard work, time, money- GRWZDQWWRVKDUH
o Consequences
Pop increase, land possession->social hierarchies= inequality (in regards to access to food/land), poverty, warfare,
epidemics, diseases (from domesticating animals, living in close knits groups), low life expectancy
o Positives
Occupational specialization, urban living, writing systems invented
x Contemporary Diet
o Farming-> machinery= oil/petroleum (more efficient/replacing human labour->surpluses of food)
o Fertilizers: physical compound given to plant to promote growth
o Pesticides: substance used to kill pests
o Field-> table= dependent of oil byproducts (processing/packaging/transport.)
o Consequences= toxic run-off, erosion, damaging soil structure
o Sustainability: Not consume/destroy nonrenewable resources
o Our system is not supporting a sustainable method
Changing what people eat is not simple
Food is deeply cultural and political (not neutral)
x Famine
o Famine: Severe shortage of food, lasting for a long period of time
o Starvation= worldwide, found everywhere
o Massive ability to produce food, yet living amongst us people are still going hungry
o Shortage is not problem, but rather the meaning of accessing food ($$)
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