Socio-Cultural Ethnographic Examples Terminology

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23 Aug 2010

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CHAPTER 1: Culture and Meaning
x Culture the system of meanings about the nature of experience that are shaped by people and passed on from
one generation to another
x Ethnocentric Fallacy the idea that our beliefs/behaviours are right/true, while those of others are wrong/misguided
x Ethnocentrism the tendency to judge the beliefs/behaviours of other cultures from the perspective of ones culture
x Relativism attempt to understand the beliefs/behaviours of other cultures in terms of the culture in which they are
x Relativistic Fallacy it is impossible to make moral judgments about the beliefs/behaviours of members of other cultures
x Objectivity state/quality ob being objective
x Morality quality of being in accordance with standards of right/good conduct
x Politically Committed
Anthropology anthropologists must serve as witnesses and reporters of human rights abuses and the suffering of the
x Ethnographic Method immersion of researchers in the lives and cultures of the peoples they are trying to understand in order to
comprehend the meanings these people ascribe to existence
x Participation Observation active participation of researcher/observer in the lives of those being studied
x Marginal Person an outsider who knows only something of what it is to be an insider
x Cultural Text a way of thinking about culture as a text of significant symbols (words, gestures, drawings)
x Turkey Virginity testing- related to way Turkish villagers explain reproductive process
Young women- avoid sexual relations before marriage (not applicable to men)
x Wari Consume dead: fit with dealing with their emotions/meaning they impose on the world
x Santa Carina (MEX) World controlled by- witches/spiritual forces
x Bali Balinese shy about open conflict-> cockfights- demonstrate the struggle for status in everyday life
Outcomes of fight translate to status
x CDN Hockey Ritual (brings ppl together w/ common focus)
Hockey affirms values of success, builds character, cooperation
Violence and competition are part of everyday CDN life, hockey shows how both are important to CDNs
x Happy Meal American demographic, ecological patterns, agricultural/industrial history, gender roles (w/ toys)
Chapter 2: Progress and Development
x Hadza nomadic farmers; Tanzania; women responsible for collecting food; meat is only thing considered as food
x Ju/Hoansi foragers; struggle w/ limited tech to obtain food; spent many hrs/wk collecting for vegetables (80% diet)
x Population Density number of people living in an given area
x Consequences of High
Population Densities simple agriculture is consequences of pop growth; growing own crops
x Potatoe Production New Guinea; slash/burn; energy cost per calorie= lower than US (who much more)
Western agriculture= wasteful/inefficient
x Textiles in England/India India produces cheaper clothe (compared to ENG)
English factories= copy Indian textiles-> destroyed Indian market
x Opium Trade China British demanded/received additional trading rights to china= opening up market for opium/textiles
Increased opium addicts in china, and exports from England-> India/China
x US Slavery Slaves= Africa-> US (cotton production); cheap labour
x Cherokee Indian Tribes; large plots of land: Carolina, Georgia
Thousands of acres of land taken from Indian-> cotton production
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