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Study Guide

ANT100Y1- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 148 pages long!)


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT100Y1
Professor
Shawn Lehman
Study Guide
Final

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UTSG
ANT100Y1
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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ANT100 Lecture
Topic 2: The Archaeological Record
o The archaeological record is the sum of all physical evidence about the past that survives
to the present = objects plus their contact
2A) Factors that affect the arch record
o not all behaviours will leave material traces
o Because of intervening cultural and natural processes, the arch record is not usually a
direct reflection of past behaviour
o Arh ust aoid the Popeii Preise
Some Definitions:
o Artifact: Any object made or modified by people
o Eco fact: Natural object used or affected by people
o Feature: Non-portable material remains resulting from human activity (e.g. a house, a
fireplace, a madden)
o Archaeological site: a place where evidence of past human activity is preserved
How do artifacts enter the archaeological record?
o Four stages:
1) Acquisition: raw material acquired either directly or through trade
2) Manufacture: modification of raw materials
3) use: utilization can leave traces on the artifact; use can also be interpreted from where
the artifact is found
4) deposition: entry of the material into the arch record, through h loss or discard
** artifacts can enter the arch record at any point in this process
Processes that transform Arch record
o Natural Factors
Climate; temperature and humidity
Extreme wet, dry, or cold preserves organics
Biological factors e.g. decay, rodents, carnivores
Soil chemistry can destroy (Acid) or preserve (fossilize)
Catastrophic events (volcanoes, earthquakes)
Cultural Factors
o Large Scale Human Events
E.g. war
o Looting
Encouraged by antiquities market
o Disturbance through industrial or agricultural development
Changes the context of materials within arch site
*** As a result of these natural and cultural factors the arch record is highly distorted
Context
o The provenience and associations of an artifact, feature, or arch find in space and time
o Provenience: three-dimensional locations of artifact or feature
o Association: two or more items occurring together
Usually in same level, feature, etc.
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Primary Context
o Undisturbed since deposition of artifacts by people who made and used them
E.g. burials, living floors, houses, middens
o Secondary Context
Location and association are altered, so less information is available to the archaeologist
2b) Fieldwork
survey and excavation
How are site found?
o Some sites were never lost
o Chance or Accident
E.g. ae paitigs i Lasau shoolo’s dog, ie e foud  hikers
o Use of documentary sources
E.g. L’Ase au Meados Vikig site in Newfoundland
o Salvage Arch
Determined by industrial or urban development plans or site destruction
o Arch survey
Survey of regions. Allows reconstruction of settlement pattern = distribution of site
across the landscape
Surface survey
o Most common; walking; looking for surface artifacts
o Aerial survey: airplanes, helicopters, drones
Subsurface techniques
o Used to identify buried remains
o Simplest, most common: test pitting = using shovel
Non-invasive methods for subsurface detection:
Soil Resistivity: resistance to electrical current
o Ground Penetrating
Excavation
o Site Evaluation
Once a site is found, you must determine size, type, layout
Produce accurate maps
Plot surface artifacts and Eco facts
Subsurface testing
o Excavation is necessary for detailed information
Often, buried deposits are better preserved and less disturbed than surface deposits
Only buried deposits allow archaeoligists to infer association
Best evidence for change in actvitiy over time
The key
Excavation Strategy
o 1: vertical excavation
reveals stratigraphy change through time
deep probes, generally used to construct chronologies
o 2) Horizontal excavation
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