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Study Guide for Term Test 1 [Bio Part 1]

Course Code
Christopher Watts
Study Guide

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TT1-Review-Biology /Physical Antropology Section
(please use Lecture Notes as main material, this is just used for Org purpose + Book Keywords& Highlights)
Bio + Evolution:
Key Terms: (in order of appearance or connectiveness)
Key key key words
Evolutionary antho
Morphology, ecology, behaviour of human and non-human primates (living and extinct)
Primatology e.g living primates, conservation *tropical
Paleoanthropology eg paleo- fossil? , change cultural, evo history
Human variation e.g natural selection, geo climate, body size, skin colour
Medical antho e.g heart disease, evol,
Foresic antho eg dental skull in legal setting
Early Naturalists:
Carolous Linnaeus
System- phy resembles, species, genus, religious (not evolutionist), places human with primates in same grp
-taxonomy- describe name classify
-binomial nomenclature- Latin
-vs later- [typological] systematic classify t by common traits vs. later morphological
George Lousi, Connie
de Buffon
Many theories turned to be true e.g. Earth history age, founded Biogeography t dif env dif plants/animal
against Fixity of species: God, create and always exist [~Creationism]
like Catastrophism- event- cause extinction
Jean-Bapiste Lamark
1st describe inheritance of acquired characteristcs Æ in extre sitatuion, starting tree reach, no longer needed gone
Charles Darwin
Ship, no fixity of species, fossil, variety- why- must be good for them, cross eassy by Thoomas Maltus on pop, species adapt to env,
Natural selection- all species must shared common ancestior, nature is selecting the ind. Trait that carry the right varieties; some ppl will not pass on their genetic to
next; a process resulting in survival and perception related to env
Alfred Russel Wallace- wrote him about diversity Æ Origin of Species publishedÆ suggest there is struggle for existence, variation in fitness (Darwin fitness) t
making babies!!!vsome possess trait enable to surive and produce more of spring sucessfuly that in some env. (fav traits) ~, inheritance of variance- adv traints get
passed on normally~more common if adv
x E}Á}^À}oµ]}v_]v(]]ion
Hominini ~]Z
Key key words

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x EÀ]}uZÇ]Ì^µÀ]Ào}(Z(]_--? But social used misguided [social Darwinism]
x [fitness] avg contribution of an allele or genotype to offsprings later generationS
x ]v[lv}Á^Pv]Z]Çt key to solve his final doubt
Sextual selection- instead of env selects traits, 1 sex selects desired traints from opp sex
Primidtive perception- not keep getting better t since env change
Gregor Mendel
Pea-plants experiments, great choice t can inbred (gg), hybrid (g+y), observable trait, small, self-fertilziation or cross
found- 1st hybrid all main character, 2nd hybrid(from self pollination): 3:1 ratio!!!
Oh- each ind. Plant carries 2 copies of same factor that determines traits [see later] [Allele]
James Hutton
Uniformitarianism (past- present happen too)
Charles Lyell
Zoology vs. botany
Study of animal vs. plants
Genetics /Inheritance Cont[d from Mendel
Dominate (fully expressed in Phenotype; if there, then always expressed) vs. recessive (thus only see if yy);
forms of same gene (1 or many)
Variant code , other e.g. colour, flavour, some combined taints of one alleles~
e.g. recessive gene t Mandibular bone at jaw
Phenotype (look)
Observable traints e.g. yellow Æ (}^Pv_ ^<Ç]}Ào_
Also 3y to 1 g
~ later [Phenology] Æ classification- refer to relatedness of species by looking similar e.g. shape, appearance ~[phonetics] classification based on such
Vs. later [morphological] looking features /formÆ refer to species vs. above[ typological ]-classification
Vs. [phylogenetic] evolutionary relatedness among dif specieces [key determi- genetics]
Genetic makeup of an org; sum of complete inherited traits (i.e. ALL ATCGs)
Also, dif levels ratio 1 (YY): 2 (Yu) to 1(yy)
YY or yy
Small changes within pop- gen basis, natural selection, adaption
Macroevo (vis bio)
At or above species level, Cladogram, evol on grand scale, modern synthesis theory (see later 4 factors-mutation etc), million, extinction
Mitosis (1)
1 somatic cell into 2 subcells, each with same number of chromosome as parent
Meiosis (2)
For sex /germ cell/garmete, 4 subcells, each receive half of the amt of DNA
Transcription (1)
Replicate (mRNA copy DNA) Æ AT GC; ~transfer info from DNA to RNA
RNA-> Rib -> protein synthesis/creation (transfer (~translater )RNA)
Sex cell- egg or sperm in mammals
Chromomsome exchange material to form gamete tHomolougous chromosomes only
Cytoplasm, nucleus,
Protein, key is this blueprint never leaves nucleus (headoffice), only copy to factory
Base, sugar, phosphate grp Æ block of DNA
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