ANT100Y1 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Special Request Notes - Genus, Africa, Dna

650 views23 pages
5 Nov 2018
School
Department
Course
Professor
University of Toronto St. George
ANT100Y1
Introduction to Anthropology
Special Request
Fall 2018
Prof. Max Friesen
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 23 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 23 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
ANT100 LECTURE 2 Evolutionary Anthropology
Biodiversity- life changing, geology, water (water cycle and how the earth moves is important
for life), climate (where the rain comes and doesn’t, where it goes), IT’S ABOUT LIFE!
What is Evolutionary Anthropology?
Application of modern evolutionary theory to studies of morphology, ecology, and behaviour of
human and non-human primates.
Primatology
Scientific study of non-human primates.
Paleoanthropology
Biological evolution of humans and non-humans.
EVOLUTION IS NOT LINEAR. IT IS NOT ABOUT MAKING A BETTER HUMAN BEING, NOT
PROGRESSIVE. BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION IS EAT. REPRODUCE. SURVIVE.
Human Variation
Spatial and temporal variations in human features
Medical Anthropology
Saves lives, hos social, environment, and biological factors influence health and illness of
individuals in the community.
Forensic Anthropologists
Focuses only on skeletal remains
4 problems limit development of theory of evolution
1. Lack of knowledge on age of earth
2. Religious concept of fixity of species
3. Lack of scientific method
4. Separate creation of Humans and animals
5.
KEY FIGURES
CAROLUS LINNAEUS
1st comprehensive classification system for living things
Each living thing named separate species
Based on physical resemblances, species grouped into broader categories called
genera (singular genus)
Not an “Evolutionist”
Binomial Nomenclature is the system used to name things, still the system used today
GEORGE-LOUIS LECLERC, COMTE DE BUFFON
Earth’s history >6 000 years (75 000 years.) Major issue with contemporary religious
authorities!
Founded biogeography: despite similar environments
JEAN- BAPTISTE LAMARCK
Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 23 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Acquired traits: developed through use or disuse, passed on to off springs
Among first to formulate method for organization of new species through adaptations
Charles Darwin
Conclusion: NO fixity of species and notion on short, catastrophic geological history for
earth must be incorrect (hated slavery)
Variety of life
Variation Important in Evolution
Physical Variety in any population of organisms
If variety provides advantage to certain individuals, then they may produce more
offspring
HOW DOES ADAPTIVE CHANGE OCCUR?
Essay on the principle of populations
Thomas Malthus, many more organisms are born than can survive
Darwin: individuals in a species adapt to environments and long-term adaptations
o “Natural Selection”: A process in nature resulting in survival and perpetuation of
only those forms of life having certain favourable characteristics that enable them
to adapt best to their environment
Alfred Russell Wallace
Writes Darwin from Malaysia describing certain aspects theory of natural selection
that Darwin had been researching for 20 years
Darwin suggested to team up in presentation of ideas
Three Postulates of Darwinian evolution
1. Struggle for existence
2. Variation in fitness
3. Inheritance of variation
Note: the word “evolution” does not appear in the first edition of Origin of Species.
Darwin’s Other Contributions
Darwin avoided implications of general progress or directionality
Later works apply evolution to humans, & discuss other aspects of trait variation
Sexual selection: certain evolutionary traits can be explained by intraspecific (within-
species) competition. Females selecting certain traits in the males to mate with. The
males only have to live long enough to mate. Females are the choosing sex, tying in to
the fact of reproduction. EXAMPLES of species who do this are 1) Birds 2) Peacock
spiders 3) Peacocks. “Extreme male displays.”
Why doesn’t evolution result in general increase of fitness of life to external world?
Reason: environments always changing
Relative to organisms, environments usually getting worse
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 23 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

Grade+All Inclusive
$10 USD/m
You will be charged $120 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.